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Journal: Experimental and clinical transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation

168

OBJECTIVES: To determine the mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetic profile early after transplant in Iranian kidney graft recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed during 6 months in 31 patients who recently had kidney transplant and received fixed doses of mycophenolate mofetil (2 g/d). The plasma levels of mycophenolic acid were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The mean first mycophenolic acid peak level was 10 ± 5 mg/L. The mean mycophenolic acid area under the curve was 26 ± 19 mgh/L and apparent clearance was 57 ± 55 L/h. The mycophenolic acid area under the curve values of only 8 patients (26%) were within the therapeutic range (30-60 mgh/L). The first, second, and third mycophenolic acid peak levels correlated significantly with mycophenolic acid area under the curve (P < .05). Mycophenolic acid concentration at 10 hours had the highest correlation with mycophenolic acid area under the curve (r=0.962; P < .05). No statistically significant differences were evident in the mean mycophenolic acid area under the curve between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high degree of variation between different patients in mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics early after kidney transplant.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Statistics, Statistical significance, High performance liquid chromatography, Kidney transplantation, Pharmacokinetics, Mycophenolic acid, Mycophenolate mofetil

153

The risk for respiratory complications after solid-organ transplantation continues to be high, even though progress has been achieved with surgical techniques, immunosuppressive agents, and perioperative treatment of transplant recipients. This review is an overview of infectious and noninfectious respiratory complications in liver, kidney, heart, and lung transplant patients. Postoperative respiratory complications are more frequent after liver, heart, and lung transplant recipients, but the incidence is lower in kidney transplant recipients. Lung infiltrates due to multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are increasing and may cause respiratory failure associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategies including early, broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic therapy, lung protective mechanical ventilation, and appropriate timing of tracheotomy for patients who need prolonged mechanical ventilation. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of these respiratory complications may improve outcomes.

Concepts: Immune system, Bacteria, Pulmonology, Opportunistic infection, Infection, Organ transplant, Immunosuppressive drug, Empiric therapy

140

The most common complications after renal transplant are urologic and are a cause of significant morbidity in a vulnerable population. We sought to characterize the timing and predictors of urologic complications after renal transplant using a statewide database.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Organ transplant

131

Vascular complications after liver trans-plant can be lethal. High levels of suspicion and aggressive use of diagnostic tools may help with early diagnosis and treatment. Here, we share our experiences regarding this topic.

25

The mechanism responsible for the development of posttransplant diabetes mellitus associated with tacrolimus treatment remains unclear. To investigate the possible effect of tacrolimus on the development of impaired glucose tolerance in transplant recipients, this study focused on early and second phase insulin secretion, which may be affected by reactive oxygen species under tacrolimus therapy.

Concepts: Cell, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Pancreas, Beta cell, Reactive oxygen species, Glucose tolerance test

5

Diabetes mellitus is a disease with no definite cure. In recent years, stem cell transplant has led to treatment of various diseases including diabetes. We sought to report a type 1 diabetic patient with a brain mass, diagnosed as transitional meningioma, after a fetal hematopoietic stem cell transplant. A 57-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes who previously had undergone a fetal hematopoietic stem cell transplant, attended the clinic with a history of progressive bifrontal headaches accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances over the previous 8 months. Investigations revealed a 2-cm mass in the right temporal region. The patient underwent a craniotomy, and the lesion was removed and sent for pathological and genetic investigations. The results indicated transitional meningioma with the origin of transplanted fetal hematopoietic stem cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transitional meningioma as a result of stem cell transplant. Despite all unanswered questions about the safety of stem cell transplant, this novel therapy provides hope for patients with type 1 diabetes.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Bone marrow, Stem cells, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Organ transplant, Hematopoietic stem cell, Diabetic ketoacidosis

3

1

Graft-versus-host-disease after orthotopic liver transplant is a rare and life-threatening complication. The diagnosis is challenging and usually confirmed by chimerism and skin biopsies. The most common cause of death is sepsis (60%), and broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal prophylaxis are strongly recommended. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with hepatocellular carcinoma and a previous history of metabolic and alcoholic cirrhosis who underwent orthotopic liver transplant. The immunosuppression regimen consisted of corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitor, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitor. Nine days after surgery, the patient developed leukopenia and skin rash. After confirmation of graft-versus-host disease by chimerism and skin biopsy, etanercept, a novel anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha drug used for patients with hematologic and rheumatologic disease, was administrated. Unfortunately, no clinical improvements or bone marrow recovery were noted, and the patient had subsequent fatal sepsis due to Enterococcus faecium, Aspergillus fumigatus, and viral superinfection. There are no US Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for graft-versus-host disease after orthotopic liver transplant. The main risk factors are recipients > 50 years old, patients with glucose intolerance, patients transplanted due to hepatocellular carcinoma, donor-recipient age difference of > 20 years, and any HLA-class I match. In accordance with the literature, we suggest early use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal drugs during etanercept treatment. In addition, because of substantially higher risk for severe sepsis, we strongly recommend adding an antiviral prophylaxis to prevent Cytomegalovirus reactivation or unexpected superinfection.

Concepts: Cancer, Biopsy, Cirrhosis, Liver, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, Immunosuppression, Liver transplantation

1

In this study, we aimed to determine whether the prostate-specific antigen level is a reliable marker of prostate cancer in patients with hepatic insufficiency, based on evaluation of alterations in serum prostate-specific antigen levels after liver transplant in patients with hepatic insufficiency.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Cancer, Metastasis, Prostate cancer, Cirrhosis, Liver, Prostate, Prostate-specific antigen

0

Posttransplant anemia affects 30% to 45% of kidney transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity. However, there is lack of evidence about safe hemoglobin levels after erythropoietin treatment. Studies are needed to better understand the potential benefits and risks, as well as to define safe target hemoglobin ranges in these patients.