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Journal: European journal of preventive cardiology


The role of tea consumption in the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains unclear in cohort studies. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the associations of tea consumption with the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality.


Background Replacing sitting with standing is one of several recommendations to decrease sedentary time and increase the daily energy expenditure, but the difference in energy expenditure between standing versus sitting has been controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine this difference. Designs and methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar for observational and experimental studies that compared the energy expenditure of standing versus sitting. We calculated mean differences and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. We conducted different predefined subgroup analyses based on characteristics of participants and study design. Results We identified 658 studies and included 46 studies with 1184 participants for the final analysis. The mean difference in energy expenditure between sitting and standing was 0.15 kcal/min (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12-0.17). The difference among women was 0.1 kcal/min (95% CI 0.0-0.21), and was 0.19 kcal/min (95% CI 0.05-0.33) in men. Observational studies had a lower difference in energy expenditure (0.11 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.08-0.14) compared to randomised trials (0.2 kcal/min, 95% CI 0.12-0.28). By substituting sitting with standing for 6 hours/day, a 65 kg person will expend an additional 54 kcal/day. Assuming no increase in energy intake, this difference in energy expenditure would be translated into the energy content of about 2.5 kg of body fat mass in 1 year. Conclusions The substitution of sitting with standing could be a potential solution for a sedentary lifestyle to prevent weight gain in the long term. Future studies should aim to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of this strategy.

Concepts: Statistics, Obesity, Randomized controlled trial, Body fat percentage, Confidence interval, Random effects model


Background Epidemiological studies on smoking and atrial fibrillation have been inconsistent, with some studies showing a positive association while others have found no association. It is also unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked or pack-years and the risk of atrial fibrillation. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched the PubMed and Embase databases for studies of smoking and atrial fibrillation up to 20 July 2017. Prospective studies and nested case-control studies within cohort studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of atrial fibrillation associated with smoking were included. Summary relative risks (95% CIs) were estimated using a random effects model. Results Twenty nine prospective studies (22 publications) were included. The summary relative risk was 1.32 (95% CI 1.12-1.56, I2 = 84%, n = 11 studies) for current smokers, 1.09 (95% CI 1.00-1.18, I2 = 33%, n = 9) for former smokers and 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.31, I2 = 80%, n = 14) for ever smokers compared to never smokers. Comparing current versus non-current smokers the summary relative risk was 1.33 (95% CI 1.14-1.56, I2 = 78%, n = 10). The summary relative risk was 1.14 (95% CI 1.10-1.20, I2 = 0%, n = 3) per 10 cigarettes per day and 1.16 (95% CI 1.09-1.25, I2 = 49%, n = 2) per 10 pack-years and there was no evidence of a non-linear association for cigarettes per day, Pnon-linearity = 0.17. Conclusions The current meta-analysis suggests that smoking is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation in a dose-dependent matter, but the association is weaker among former smokers compared to current smokers.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering efficacy and safety of a bempedoic acid 180 mg and ezetimibe 10 mg fixed-dose combination in patients with hypercholesterolemia and a high risk of cardiovascular disease receiving maximally tolerated statin therapy.


Background:While cardiorespiratory fitness is strongly related to survival, there are limited data regarding musculoskeletal fitness indicators. Our aim was to evaluate the association between the ability to sit and rise from the floor and all-cause mortality.Design:Retrospective cohort.Methods:2002 adults aged 51-80 years (68% men) performed a sitting-rising test (SRT) to and from the floor, which was scored from 0 to 5, with one point being subtracted from 5 for each support used (hand/knee). Final SRT score, varying from 0 to 10, was obtained by adding sitting and rising scores and stratified in four categories for analysis: 0-3; 3.5-5.5, 6-7.5, and 8-10.Results:Median follow up was 6.3 years and there were 159 deaths (7.9%). Lower SRT scores were associated with higher mortality (p < 0.001). A continuous trend for longer survival was reflected by multivariate-adjusted (age, sex, body mass index) hazard ratios of 5.44 (95% CI 3.1-9.5), 3.44 (95% CI 2.0-5.9), and 1.84 (95% CI 1.1-3.0) (p < 0.001) from lower to higher SRT scores. Each unit increase in SRT score conferred a 21% improvement in survival.Conclusions:Musculoskeletal fitness, as assessed by SRT, was a significant predictor of mortality in 51-80-year-old subjects. Application of a simple and safe assessment tool such as SRT, which is influenced by muscular strength and flexibility, in general health examinations could add relevant information regarding functional capabilities and outcomes in non-hospitalized adults.

Concepts: Body mass index, Scores


There is a paucity of population-based geospatial data about the association between active transport and myocardial infarction. We investigated the association between active transport to work and incidence of myocardial infarction.


Background Heat therapy has been suggested to improve cardiovascular function. However, the effects of hot sauna exposure on arterial compliance and the dynamics of blood flow and pressure have not been well documented. Thus, we investigated the short-term effects of sauna bathing on arterial stiffness and haemodynamics. Design The design was an experimental non-randomised study. Methods There were 102 asymptomatic participants (mean age, 51.9 years) who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were exposed to a single sauna session (duration: 30 min; temperature: 73℃; humidity: 10-20%). Pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, heart rate, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, augmented pressure and left ventricular ejection time were assessed before, immediately after, and 30 min after a single sauna session. Results Sauna bathing led to reductions in pulse wave velocity, blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection time. Mean pulse wave velocity value before sauna was 9.8 m/s and decreased to 8.6 m/s immediately after sauna bathing ( p < 0.001 for difference), and was 9.0 m/s after the 30-minute recovery period ( p < 0.001 for analysis of variance). Systolic blood pressure was 137 mm Hg before sauna bathing, decreasing to 130 mm Hg after sauna ( p < 0.001), which remained sustained during the 30-minute recovery phase ( p < 0.001 for analysis of variance). After a single sauna session, diastolic blood pressure decreased from 82 to 75 mm Hg, mean arterial pressure from 99.4 to 93.6 mm Hg and left ventricular ejection time from 307 to 278 m/s ( p < 0.001 for all differences). Pulse pressure was 42.7 mm Hg before the sauna, 44.9 mm Hg immediately after the sauna, and reduced to 39.3 mm Hg after 30-minutes recovery ( p < 0.001 for analysis of variance). Heart rate increased from 65 to 81 beats/min post-sauna ( p < 0.001); there were no significant changes for augmented pressure and pulse pressure amplification. Conclusion This study shows that pulse wave velocity, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time decreased immediately after a 30-minute sauna session. Decreases in systolic blood pressure and left ventricular ejection time were sustained during the 30-minute recovery phase.

Concepts: Blood, Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Blood pressure, Artery, Ventricle, Pulse pressure, Mean arterial pressure


Poor oral hygiene can provoke transient bacteremia and systemic inflammation, a mediator of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. This study aims to investigate association of oral hygiene indicators with atrial fibrillation and heart failure risk in Korea.


The aim of this study was to provide updated evidence to assess the association between parental alcohol consumption and the risk of total congenital heart diseases (CHDs) and specific CHD phenotypes in offspring, and explore the possible dose-response pattern.


Our objective was to analyse general practitioner (GP) cardiovascular risk assessment of patients for primary prevention while considering the gender of both the GP and the patient.

Concepts: Medical terms, Patient, Evaluation, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Physician, Patience, General practitioner