SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V

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Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current influenza vaccines have several limitations. Relatively long production times, limited vaccine capacity, moderate efficacy in certain populations and lack of cross-reactivity are important issues that need to be addressed. We give an overview of the current status and novel developments in the landscape of influenza vaccines from an interdisciplinary point of view. The feasibility of novel vaccine concepts not only depends on immunological or clinical outcomes, but also depends on biotechnological aspects, such as formulation and production methods, which are frequently overlooked. Furthermore, the next generation of influenza vaccines is addressed, which hopefully will bring cross-reactive influenza vaccines. These developments indicate that an exciting future lies ahead in the influenza vaccine field.

Concepts: Immune system, Pneumonia, Vaccine, Vaccination, Biotechnology, Influenza, Influenza vaccine

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Nutrition rich in carotenoids is well known to prevent cell damage, premature skin aging and skin cancer. Cutaneous carotenoids can be enriched in the skin by nutrition and topically applied antioxidants have shown an increase in radical protection after VIS/NIR irradiation. In this paper it was investigated whether orally administered carotenoids increase the radical scavenging activity and the radical protection of the skin using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the skin lipid profile was investigated applying HPTLC on skin lipid extracts. Furthermore, in vivo Raman resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cutaneous carotenoid concentration. A double blind placebo controlled clinical study was performed with 24 healthy volunteers, who have shown a slow but significant and effective increase of cutaneous carotenoids in the verum group. The enhancement in carotenoids increases the radical scavenging activity of the skin and provides a significant protection against stress induced radical formation. Furthermore, the skin lipids in the verum group increased compared to the placebo group but only significantly for ceramide [NS]. These results indicate that a supplementation with dietary products containing carotenoids in physiological concentrations can protect the skin against reactive oxygen species and could avoid premature skin aging and other radical associated skin diseases.

Concepts: Protein, Oxygen, Antioxidant, Oxidative phosphorylation, Reactive oxygen species, Fat, Skin, Electron paramagnetic resonance

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Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) raw material variability is not always thoroughly considered during pharmaceutical process development, mainly due to low quantities of drug substance available. However, synthesis, crystallization routes and production sites evolve during product development and product life cycle leading to changes in physical material attributes which can potentially affect their processability. Recent literature highlights the need for a global approach to understand the link between material synthesis, material variability, process and product quality. The study described in this article aims at explaining the raw material variability of an API using extensive material characterization on a restricted number of representative batches using multivariate data analysis. It is part of a larger investigation trying to link the API drug substance manufacturing process, the resulting physical API raw material attributes and the drug product continuous manufacturing process. Eight API batches produced using different synthetic routes, crystallization, drying, delumping processes and processing equipment were characterized, extensively. Seventeen properties from seven characterization techniques were retained for further analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Three principal components (PCs) were sufficient to explain 92.9 % of the API raw material variability. The first PC was related to crystal length, agglomerate size and fraction, flowability and electrostatic charging. The second PC was driven by the span of the particle size distribution and the agglomerates strength. The third PC was related to surface energy. Additionally, the PCA allowed to summarize the API batch-to-batch variability in only three PCs which can be used in future drug product development studies to quantitatively evaluate the impact of the API raw material variability upon the drug product process. The approach described in this article could be applied to any other compound which is prone to batch-to-batch variability.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Multivariate statistics, Principal component analysis, Materials science, Pharmaceutical drug, Singular value decomposition, Active ingredient, Chemical engineering

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Staked-in needle pre-fillable syringes (SIN-PFS) are a convenient delivery system widely established in the growing pharmaceutical market. Under specific storage conditions, the needle of PFS containing high concentration drug product (DP) solution is prone to clogging, which prevents administration of the liquid. The purpose of this study is to clarify the clogging phenomenon of SIN-PFS and to elucidate the role of water vapor transmission via the needle shield. The presence of liquid within needles is a prerequisite condition for clogging and was investigated non-invasively by neutron imaging (NI) to confirm that liquid can migrate into the needle under certain processing conditions. The water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of different needle shields was measured and the impact of temperature and relative humidity (rH) on the WVTR was investigated on sheets with the same composition as used in commercial needle shields. Our study clearly showed that the partial vapor pressure difference (ΔPP) across the needle shield is the dominant driving factor for water vapor transmission. A linear correlation between ΔPP and WVTR was found and a model to predict the water vapor transmission for PFS under specific storage conditions was developed. The impact of the WVTR on needle clogging was confirmed by clogging tests performed on SIN-PFS stored under different conditions. Thereby, we clearly show that high water loss induced by higher WVTR can be correlated to an increased occurrence of needle clogging. In conclusion, the WVTR of the needle shield plays a key role in needle clogging and the established WVTR model can be employed to assess the clogging risk for product development.

Concepts: Water, Humidity, Water vapor, Relative humidity, Psychrometrics, Vapor pressure, Vapor, Evaporation

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Liquid crystalline molecularly imprinted polymers (LC-MIPs) were low cross-linking MIPs (5-20 mol %) by introducing a LC monomer into the MIP polymerization system to keep the shape of the imprinted cavities due to additional interactions between the mesogenic groups. The multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated LC-MIP (MWCNT@LC-MIP) was the first fabricated as a novel floating interaction-controlled DDS. The synthesis was achieved by adding 9-vinylanthracene to obtain the high-density vinyl group functionalized MWCNTs firstly, and then polymerization of LC MIPs was performed on the surface of MWCNTs using a mixture of methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and 4-methyl phenyl dicyclohexyl ethylene (LC monomer) with levofloxacin (LVF) as model template drug. Both template/functional monomer ratio and levels of crosslinker were optimized to obtain the best imprinting factor. Characterizations of polymer were investigated by the transmission electron microscope, nitrogen adsorption, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectra and floating behavior studies. The imprinting effect was confirmed by the adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics and effect of selectivity. In vitro release studies were examined by the LVF-loaded MWCNT@LC-MIP and the control samples, MWCNT@LC-NIP, MWCNT@MIP, MWCNT@NIP and the bare MWCNT using acetonitrile as the dissolute medium. The release profiles showed an obvious zero-order release of LVF from MWCNT@LC-MIP, which exhibited 3.8 μg/h of the release rate with duration of about 20 h. In vivo pharmacokinetic study displayed the relative bioavailability of the gastro-floating MWCNT@LC-MIP was 578.9%, whereas only 58.0% of MWCNT@MIP and 11.7% of the bared MWCNT. As a conclusion, MWCNT@LC-MIP showed potentials for oral administration by the innovative combination of floating and controlled release properties.

Concepts: Polymer, Polymer chemistry, In vivo, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Adsorption, Carbon nanotube, Ethylene glycol, Polymerization

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Alpha emitters have great potential in targeted tumour therapy, especially in destroying micrometastases, due to their high linear energy transfer (LET). To prevent toxicity caused by recoiled daughter atoms in healthy tissue, alpha emitters like 225Ac can be encapsulated in polymeric nanocarriers (polymersomes), which are capable of retaining the daughter atoms to a large degree. In the translation to a (pre-)clinical setting, it is essential to evaluate their therapeutic potential. As multicellular tumour spheroids mimic a tumour microenvironment more closely than a two-dimensional cellular monolayer, this study has focussed on the interaction of the polymersomes with U87 human glioma spheroids. We have found that polymersomes distribute themselves throughout the spheroid after 4 days which, considering the long half-life of 225Ac (9.9 d) [1], allows for irradiation of the entire spheroid. A decrease in spheroidal growth has been observed upon the addition of only 0.1 kBq 225Ac, an effect which was more pronounced for the 225Ac in polymersomes than when only coupled to DTPA. At higher activities (5 kBq), the spheroids have been found to be destroyed completely after two days. We have thus demonstrated that 225Ac containing polymersomes effectively inhibit tumour spheroid growth, making them very promising candidates for future in vivo testing.

Concepts: Animal testing, Atom, In vivo, In vitro fertilisation, In vitro, Sphere, 2D computer graphics, Spheroid

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Lutein is located in the macula lutea in the human eye. Since humans cannot synthesize lutein de novo, it must be digested as food. Some studies including our previous study showed very low absorption of lutein after oral administration. Those studies also suggested that the absorption route of lutein from the small intestine involves not only the blood but also the lymph. The aim of this study was to clarify the transfer of lutein into lymph and the tissue distribution after oral administration of a solid dispersion (SD) and a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for improvement of the absorption. We used thoracic lymph-cannulated rats. It was shown that the plasma concentrations of lutein in the SD and SMEDDS groups were increased compared with that in the powder group. The absorption of lutein after oral administration of each formulation was clearly evaluated by its cumulative amount in lymph. Our data clearly showed that lutein is transferred into the lymph stream from the small intestine.

Concepts: Blood, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Interstitial fluid, Eye, Small intestine, Digestion, Lymph

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of emulsifiers and formulations on intercellular lipids of porcine stratum corneum (SC) and evaluate confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) as an alternative method in this research context. To this end, four different formulations were used: three conventional creams that contained ionic and/or non-ionic emulsifiers and one surfactants-free emulsion stabilized by a polymeric emulsifier. Additionally, all emulsifiers were tested in aqueous solution/dispersion in the respective concentrations as present in the formulations. CRM and HPTLC were used to analyse changes in SC lipid content after treatment. Furthermore, lipid extraction was visualized by fluorescence staining and SC thickness was measured by CRM and light microscopy. Various emulsifiers and emulsifier mixtures showed different impact on SC lipid content and SC thickness, while none of the tested formulations had any effect on SC lipids. Emulsifiers and their mixtures that reduced the lipids content also reduced SC thickness, indicating lipid extraction is the reason for SC thinning. Results from CRM and conventional methods showed a strong positive correlation for both lipid content and SC thickness measurements. With easy sample preparation and fast analytical readout, CRM has the potential to be a standardized analytical method for skin lipids investigation.

Concepts: Protein, Measurement, Chemistry, Lipid, Correlation and dependence, Raman spectroscopy, Emulsion, Microscopy

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Drug delivery systems have been used to reduce adverse effects and improve the efficacy of therapies. Drug carriers have been developed over the years, but they have limitations. γ-cyclodextrin-based metal-organic frameworks (γ-CD-MOF) have significant advantages due to their biocompatibility and environmental safety, besides crystallinity and porosity. Herein, γ-CD-MOFs were synthesised with different metals as nodes and investigated. Uniform mesoporous γ-CD-MOFs were obtained and showed an absence of toxicity in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. The longer controlled release was verified for γ-CD-MOFs, with a maximum of 62% released in 12h. An inflammation experiment was performed in mice and activity equivalent to the positive control was verified. γ-KCD-MOFs and γ-NaCD-MOFs reached activity after 6h of administration, however this happened after 24 h in γ-FeCD-MOFs, being more effective than the positive control. Considering the ability for drug entrapment, easy preparation and controlled release, this class of material allows potential applications in drug delivery systems.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Effectiveness, Drug, Drugs, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol, Control, Release

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Cashew nut allergy is the second most commonly reported tree nut allergy. Traditional allergen immunotherapy presents several clinical drawbacks that can be reduced by using nanoparticles-basedallergen-delivery systems, modulating the immune response towards a protective one. In this context, the goal of this work was to assess the potential of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles (NP) for cashew nut oral immunization. Cashew nut allergens-loaded nanoparticles (CNE-NP) were prepared by solvent displacement method. After nanoparticles characterization, oral immunomodulation ability was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Our results demonstrated that CNE-NP induced a higher Th1/Th2 ratio in comparison with animals immunized with free cashew nut proteins. Indeed, a decrease in splenic Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and an enhancement of pro-Th1 (IL-12 and IFN-γ) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was observed. Furthermore, mice orally immunized with CNE-NP presented an increased expansion of CD4+ T regulatory cells, such as CD4+Foxp3+ and CD4+LAP+, in the mesenteric lymph nodes. In conclusion, oral immunization with a single dose of poly(anhydride) nanoparticles loaded with cashew nut proteins leaded to a pro-Th1 and Treg immune response. Furthermore, their immunomodulatory properties could be introduced as a new approach for management of cashew nut allergy.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Asthma, Immunology, Allergy, T helper cell, Cashew, Edible nuts and seeds