SciCombinator

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Journal: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V

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Staked-in-needle prefilled syringes (SIN-PFS) are widely used for the parenteral administration of drug product solutions. During stability studies, clogging of the injection needle was observed in syringes filled with concentrated antibody solution. A prerequisite for this phenomenon is that liquid has entered the needle. In this study, we characterized the mechanism causing the entry and movement of liquid in the needle using neutron imaging without manipulating the container closure integrity of the syringe. The gas pressure difference between inside and outside of the syringe was identified as the major cause of liquid movement. The influence of external factors, such as temperature fluctuation and physical pressure on the stopper, were tested and were confirmed to have a relevant impact on the processes of liquid entering and moving inside the injection needle. In a second step, the solidification process of the liquid segments inside the needle via solvent evaporation was further investigated, and the process was found to be dependent on storage time, environmental climate and interaction between the drug product solution and the needle surface. The presence of air/liquid segments was identified as a further factor for the stochastic behavior of needle clogging. For the first time, this fundamental mechanism behind the needle clogging issue was investigated in depth and the results will help to reduce the defect rate for clogged SIN-PFS products.

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Transdermal protein delivery is a useful and attractive method for protein therapy and dermal vaccination. However, this delivery method is restricted by the low permeability of the stratum corneum. The purpose of this study was to develop a transdermal delivery system for enhancement of protein permeability into the skin. First, we prepared a transparent gel patch made of polysaccharides with gold nanorods on the gel surface and fluorescein isothiocyanate-modified ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) inside. Next, the gel patch was placed on mouse skin to allow contact with the coated gold nanorods, and irradiated by a continuous-wave laser. The laser irradiation heated the gold nanorods and the skin temperature increased to 43°C, resulting in enhanced translocation of FITC-OVA into the skin. These results confirmed the capability of the transdermal protein delivery system to perforate the stratum corneum and thus facilitate the passage of proteins across the skin.

Concepts: Polysaccharide, Polymer, Gel electrophoresis, Egg white, Epidermis, Keratin, Skin, Protein

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Monoclonal antibody and Fc fusion protein drugs are complex heterogeneous mixtures of numerous different protein variants and modifications. N-glycosylation as one of the most complex post-translational modification influences the structural characteristics of the antibodies Fc part thereby potentially modulating effector function and pharmacokinetics. Several investigations on the relationship between N-glycosylation and pharmacokinetics have been published. However, this structure - function relationship is not fully understood. In this review potential alterations with focus on N-glycosylation of mAbs and Fc fusion proteins and the possible effects on the pharmacokinetics are reviewed and the current understandings of the underlying mechanisms are described.

Concepts: Amino acid, Immune system, Immunohistochemistry, Structure, Monoclonal antibodies, Protein

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Adequate treatment of Parkinson’s patients in off periods with orally administered levodopa is hindered by a poor bioavailability and a slow onset of action. Hence, there is a need for a fast and reliable alternative as for instance via pulmonary administration of the drug. We developed a levodopa containing powder formulation for pulmonary delivery by a recently presented high dose dry powder inhaler (Cyclops). The objective was to produce the drug formulation by means of simple techniques such as micronisation, either as pure active substance or with a minimum amount of excipients. After an initial screening on dispersion behaviour, the most promising formulation in the Cyclops was characterised in vitro over a range of pressure drops (2 - 6 kPa) and doses (20, 30 and 40 mg), representative of those to be expected in practice. A co-micronised levodopa formulation with 2% l-leucine appeared to yield the best aerosol properties for inhalation and highest delivered dose reproducibility. The combination of this particular formulation and the Cyclops inhaler seems to meet the basic requirements for satisfactory deposition in the airways. This formulation is therefore expected to be a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson’s patients in an off period.

Concepts: Carbidopa, Period, Dose, Parkinson's disease, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Pharmacology, Dosage forms

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Central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.) represent a growing public health issue, primarily due to the increased life expectancy and the aging population. The treatment of such disorders is notably elaborate and requires the delivery of therapeutics to the brain in appropriate amounts to elicit a pharmacological response. However, despite the major advances both in neuroscience and drug delivery research, the administration of drugs to the CNS still remains elusive. It is commonly accepted that effectiveness-related issues arise due to the inability of parenterally administered macromolecules to cross the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) in order to access the CNS, thus impeding their successful delivery to brain tissues. As a result, the direct Nose-to-Brain delivery has emerged as a powerful strategy to circumvent the BBB and deliver drugs to the brain. The present review article attempts to highlight the different experimental and computational approaches pursued so far to attain and enhance the direct delivery of therapeutic agents to the brain and shed some light on the underlying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and treatment of neurological disorders.

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Nutrition rich in carotenoids is well known to prevent cell damage, premature skin aging and skin cancer. Cutaneous carotenoids can be enriched in the skin by nutrition and topically applied antioxidants have shown an increase in radical protection after VIS/NIR irradiation. In this paper it was investigated whether orally administered carotenoids increase the radical scavenging activity and the radical protection of the skin using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the skin lipid profile was investigated applying HPTLC on skin lipid extracts. Furthermore, in vivo Raman resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cutaneous carotenoid concentration. A double blind placebo controlled clinical study was performed with 24 healthy volunteers, who have shown a slow but significant and effective increase of cutaneous carotenoids in the verum group. The enhancement in carotenoids increases the radical scavenging activity of the skin and provides a significant protection against stress induced radical formation. Furthermore, the skin lipids in the verum group increased compared to the placebo group but only significantly for ceramide [NS]. These results indicate that a supplementation with dietary products containing carotenoids in physiological concentrations can protect the skin against reactive oxygen species and could avoid premature skin aging and other radical associated skin diseases.

Concepts: Fat, Protein, Reactive oxygen species, Oxygen, Oxidative phosphorylation, Skin, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Antioxidant

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This study investigates the impact of the chemical nature of lipids and additive on the formulation and properties of pH sensitive liposomes. The objective is to understand the respective role of the formulation parameters on the liposome properties in order to optimize the conditions for efficient encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX). These liposomes should be stable at physiological pH, and disrupt in slightly acidic media such as the tumor microenvironment to release their DOX load. The major challenge for encapsulating DOX in pH sensitive liposomes lies in the fact that this drug is soluble at low pH (when the pH-sensitive liposomes are not stable), but the DOX aqueous solubility decreases in the pH conditions corresponding to the stability of the pH-sensitive liposomes. The study of pH-sensitivity of liposomes was conducted using carboxyfluorescein (CF) encapsulated in high concentration, i.e. quenched, and following the dye dequenching as sensor of the liposome integrity. We studied the impact of (i) the chemical nature of lipids (dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE), palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (POPE) and dimyristoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DMPE)) and (ii)the lipid/stabilizing agent ratio (alpha-tocopheryl succinate), on the pH sensitivity of the liposomes. Optimized liposome formulations were then selected for the encapsulation of DOX by an active loading procedure, i.e. driven by a difference in pH inside and outside the liposomes. Numerous experimental conditions were explored, in function of the pH gradient and liposome composition, which allowed identifying critical parameters for the efficient DOX encapsulation in pH-sensitive liposomes.

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The current study was purported to assess the: (i) in vitro toxicity of betulin silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-B), bare and capped with polyethylene glycol (PEG), on two murine melanoma cell lines (B164A5 and B16Ova) and on healthy cell lines (keratinocytes and melanocytes), and (ii) in vivo antitumor efficacy of PEGylated AgNPs-B in an experimental melanoma model. Bare and PEG-capped AgNPs-B were synthesized by a chemical reduction method resulting in stable and non-aggregated spherical AgNPs-B and PEG-AgNPs-B, of narrow size distributions and mean hydrodynamic diameters of 25 nm and 75 nm, respectively. In vitro assessments were achieved by MTT and Annexin V-FITC assays and in vivo evaluation involved non-invasive techniques for the surveillance of the physiological skin parameters changes and histopathological examination of the harvested organs. The in vitro results revealed selective cytotoxicity against melanoma cells, at low doses that are nontoxic to normal cells; higher doses were associated with the loss of selectivity and toxicity for healthy cells. PEGylated formulation of betulin exerted a dose-dependent pro-apoptotic effect, more obvious in the case of B164A5 cells. Histopathological analysis suggested that PEGylated AgNPs-B developed relevant in vivo effects as antimelanoma agents by decreasing the tumor volume and inhibiting the development of secondary tumors.

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Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can induce RNA interference, which leads to the knockdown of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. As a result, siRNA is often used in vitro and in vivo to unravel the function of genes and as a therapeutic agent to disrupt excessive expression of disease-related genes. However, there is a large gap between in vitro and in vivo models in terms of simplicity, flexibility, throughput, and translatability. This gap could be bridged by using precision-cut tissue slices, which represent viable explants prepared from animal or human tissue that can be cultured ex vivo. Previously, we demonstrated that self-deliverable siRNA (Accell siRNA) induced significant mRNA knockdown in lung slices. The goal of this study, however, was to investigate whether Accell siRNA also induced protein knockdown in murine lung slices. Slices were incubated for up to 96 h with no siRNA (untransfected), non-targeting siRNA (control), or gene-targeting siRNA (Gapdh, Ppib, Serpinh1, and Bcl2l1). Overall, untransfected and transfected slices remained viable during an incubation of 96 h. In addition, gene-targeting siRNAs induced not only significant and specific mRNA knockdown but also protein knockdown. Finally, protein knockdown of fibrogenesis-related targets (Ppib, Serpinh1, and Bcl2l1) was shown to influence fibrogenesis on mRNA level, thereby demonstrating this model its utility in functional genomics and translational research.

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Near-Infrared hyperspectral image (HSI-NIR) is a useful technique for pharmaceutical research and industry alike. It can provide important surface information such as the polymorphs quantification and its distribution over the tablet. Several chemometric tools are applied for this purpose, with MCR-ALS and PLS regression being the most common approaches. In this work, a detailed comparison between these two approaches are performed. Beyond a “simple” regression comparison, a comparison of the score images (local quantification) was also evaluated. The system under study is tablets with ternary mixtures of Mebendazol (MBZ) polymorphs, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate. PLS models, in general, gave lower RMSEP (below 1.7% w/w for the three MBZ polymorphs) than the corresponding MCR-ALS predictions. Analyzing the distributions of the scores in the images of each sample shows clear differences between the PLS and MCR-ALS models. The MCR-ALS gave more chemical meaningful distribution maps for all polymorphs, even though the PLS accurately predicts the average concentration across the image. The problem is that the PLS models used the main spectral regions to quantify each MBZ polymorph, but at the same time undermines the minor spectroscopic changes caused by the different polymorphs. Although this may seem as a minor deviation from the truth, the results clearly show that this deviation is detrimental for the analysis of the spatial distribution of the analytes. These results indicate that the optimal multivariate model for multivariate images depend on the goal of the analysis: global quantification or a distribution analysis.