SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V

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Adequate treatment of Parkinson’s patients in off periods with orally administered levodopa is hindered by a poor bioavailability and a slow onset of action. Hence, there is a need for a fast and reliable alternative as for instance via pulmonary administration of the drug. We developed a levodopa containing powder formulation for pulmonary delivery by a recently presented high dose dry powder inhaler (Cyclops). The objective was to produce the drug formulation by means of simple techniques such as micronisation, either as pure active substance or with a minimum amount of excipients. After an initial screening on dispersion behaviour, the most promising formulation in the Cyclops was characterised in vitro over a range of pressure drops (2 - 6 kPa) and doses (20, 30 and 40 mg), representative of those to be expected in practice. A co-micronised levodopa formulation with 2% l-leucine appeared to yield the best aerosol properties for inhalation and highest delivered dose reproducibility. The combination of this particular formulation and the Cyclops inhaler seems to meet the basic requirements for satisfactory deposition in the airways. This formulation is therefore expected to be a promising candidate for the treatment of Parkinson’s patients in an off period.

Concepts: Carbidopa, Period, Dose, Parkinson's disease, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Pharmacology, Dosage forms

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Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza infection. However, current influenza vaccines have several limitations. Relatively long production times, limited vaccine capacity, moderate efficacy in certain populations and lack of cross-reactivity are important issues that need to be addressed. We give an overview of the current status and novel developments in the landscape of influenza vaccines from an interdisciplinary point of view. The feasibility of novel vaccine concepts not only depends on immunological or clinical outcomes, but also depends on biotechnological aspects, such as formulation and production methods, which are frequently overlooked. Furthermore, the next generation of influenza vaccines is addressed, which hopefully will bring cross-reactive influenza vaccines. These developments indicate that an exciting future lies ahead in the influenza vaccine field.

Concepts: Biotechnology, Pneumonia, Immune system, Vaccination, Influenza vaccine, Influenza, Vaccine

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Nutrition rich in carotenoids is well known to prevent cell damage, premature skin aging and skin cancer. Cutaneous carotenoids can be enriched in the skin by nutrition and topically applied antioxidants have shown an increase in radical protection after VIS/NIR irradiation. In this paper it was investigated whether orally administered carotenoids increase the radical scavenging activity and the radical protection of the skin using in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the skin lipid profile was investigated applying HPTLC on skin lipid extracts. Furthermore, in vivo Raman resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the cutaneous carotenoid concentration. A double blind placebo controlled clinical study was performed with 24 healthy volunteers, who have shown a slow but significant and effective increase of cutaneous carotenoids in the verum group. The enhancement in carotenoids increases the radical scavenging activity of the skin and provides a significant protection against stress induced radical formation. Furthermore, the skin lipids in the verum group increased compared to the placebo group but only significantly for ceramide [NS]. These results indicate that a supplementation with dietary products containing carotenoids in physiological concentrations can protect the skin against reactive oxygen species and could avoid premature skin aging and other radical associated skin diseases.

Concepts: Fat, Protein, Reactive oxygen species, Oxygen, Oxidative phosphorylation, Skin, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Antioxidant

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The objective of this study was to develop a stable spray dried formulation, containing the three serotypes of Sabin inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV), aiming for minimal loss of native conformation (D-antigen) during drying and subsequent storage. The influence of atomization and drying stress during spray drying on trivalent sIPV was investigated. This was followed by excipient screening, in which monovalent sIPV was formulated and spray dried. Excipient combinations and concentrations were tailored to maximize both the antigen recovery of respective sIPV serotypes after spray drying and storage (T= 40°C and t= 7 days). Furthermore, a fractional factorial design was developed around the most promising formulations to elucidate the contribution of each excipient in stabilizing D-antigen during drying. Serotype 1 and 2 could be dried with 98 % and 97 % recovery, respectively. When subsequently stored at 40°C for 7 days, the D-antigenicity of serotype 1 was fully retained. For serotype 2 the D-antigenicity dropped to 71 %. Serotype 3 was more challenging to stabilize and a recovery of 56 % was attained after drying, followed by a further loss of 37 % after storage at 40°C for 7 days. Further studies using a design of experiments approach demonstrated that trehalose/monosodium glutamate and maltodextrin/arginine combinations were crucial for stabilizing serotype 1 and 2, respectively. For sIPV serotype 3, the best formulation contained Medium199, glutathione and maltodextrin. For the trivalent vaccine it is therefore probably necessary to spray dry the different serotypes separately and mix the dry powders afterwards to obtain the trivalent vaccine.

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The freezing step plays a central role in reaching the most stringent requirements of quality, homogeneity and standardization of freeze-dried products. In this paper, a systematic procedure has been proposed to obtain a quantitative estimation of the pore-size variability of lyophilized products resulting from uncontrollable variations of the nucleation temperature. This procedure consisted in collecting the nucleation temperature from a statistically significant number of samples and correlating each nucleation temperature to the corresponding product morphology, using a mathematical model, to obtain a statistical description of the lyophilized product structure. This approach can also be used to obtain an estimation of the variability of the mass transfer resistance to vapor flow and, finally, of the drying time. Two different freezing configurations, i.e., conventional and suspended-vial freezing, have been used as case studies since they can produce significantly different freezing rates.

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Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an auspicious therapy approach for the treatment of cancer. Despite its numerous benefits, the drug delivery of the used photosensitizer (PS) to target locations inside the human body remains a main therapy challenge, since the standard intravenous PS injection often causes systemic side-effects. To circumvent this therapy drawback, the oral application represents a promising administration alternative. Especially for the treatment of intestinal cancer it offers the possibility of a local treatment with a reduced likelihood for adverse drug reactions. To establish a suitable drug delivery system for intestinal PDT, we developed nanoparticles (NP) of the biodegradable and biocompatible polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), loaded with the model PS 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(m-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (mTHPP). By functionalizing the particle surface with either poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or chitosan (CS), mucus-penetrating or mucoadhesive properties were obtained. These particle characteristics are important to enable an overcoming of the intestinal mucus barrier and thus lead to a PS accumulation close to and in the target cells. In permeation studies with a biosimilar mucus and in cell culture experiments with mucus-covered Caco-2 cells, PEG-modified NP were identified as a superior drug vehicle for an intestinal PDT, compared to surface unmodified or mucoadhesive NP.

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Oral drug administration remains the preferred approach for treatment of HIV in most patients. Maraviroc (MVC) is the first in class co-receptor antagonist, which blocks HIV entry into host cells. MVC has an oral bioavailability of approximately 33%, which is limited by poor permeability as well as affinity for CYP3A and several drug transporters. While once-daily doses are now the favoured option for HIV therapy, dose-limiting postural hypotension has been of theoretical concern when administering doses high enough to achieve this for MVC (particularly during coadministration of enzyme inhibitors). To overcome low bioavailability and modify the pharmacokinetic profile, a series of 70 wt% MVC solid drug nanoparticle (SDN) formulations (containing 30wt% of various polymer/surfactant excipients) were generated using emulsion templated freeze-drying. The lead formulation contained PVA and AOT excipients (MVCSDNPVA/AOT), and was demonstrated to be fully water-dispersible to release drug nanoparticles with z-average diameter of 728 nm and polydispersity index of 0.3. In vitro and in vivo studies of MVCSDNPVA/AOT showed increased apparent permeability of MVC, compared to a conventional MVC preparation, with in vivo studies in rats showing a 2.5-fold increase in AUC (145.33 vs. 58.71 ng.h ml-1). MVC tissue distribution was similar or slightly increased in tissues examined compared to the conventional MVC preparation, with the exception of the liver, spleen and kidneys, which showed statistically significant increases in MVC for MVCSDNPVA/AOT. These data support a novel oral format with the potential for dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic MVC exposure and potentially enabling a once-daily fixed dose combination product.

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Oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)-loaded gelatine nanoparticles (GNPs) have proven their outstanding potential in the treatment of allergic diseases such as equine asthma and canine atopic dermatitis, which are appropriate models for the corresponding human diseases. To encourage the development of a marketable product, long term stability and sterility needs to be ensured. In this work, we aimed to advance freeze-drying options to stabilise ODN-loaded GNPs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry time-of-flight was implemented as a versatile tool to assess ODN stability. With this method long-term storage stability of lyophilised ODN-loaded GNPs formulated in sucrose or trehalose was achieved. Controlled nucleation was further introduced to optimise the lyophilisation approach. This allowed shortening of the process in comparison to standard freeze-drying procedures. Particle sizes, polydispersity indices, ODN stability, residual moisture and glass transition temperature were maintained upon storage. Excipient portfolio was enlarged by novel amino acid containing formulations for lyophilisates. His emerged as an excellent excipient in stabilising lyophilised ODN-loaded GNPs, whereas addition of Arg and Gly revealed to be inadequate at accelerated conditions. Lastly, gamma irradiation was evaluated as a suitable sterilisation method of ODN-loaded GNPs.

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This manuscript shows how computational models, mainly based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), can be used to simulate different parts of an industrial freeze-drying equipment and to properly design them; in particular, the freeze-dryer chamber and the duct connecting the chamber with the condenser, with the valves and vanes eventually present are analysed in this work. In Part 1, it will be shown how CFD can be employed to improve specific designs, to perform geometry optimization, to evaluate different design choices and how it is useful to evaluate the effect on product drying and batch variance. Such an approach allows an in-depth process understanding and assessment of the critical aspects of lyophilisation. This can be done by running either steady-state or transient simulations with imposed sublimation rates or with multi-scale approaches. This methodology will be demonstrated on freeze-drying equipment of different sizes, investigating the influence of the equipment geometry and shelf inter-distance. The effect of valve type (butterfly and mushroom) and shape on duct conductance and critical flow conditions will be instead investigated in Part 2.

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Oral drugs present the most convenient, economical, and painless route for self-administration. Despite commercialization of multiple technologies relying on micro- and nanocrystalline drugs, research on microparticles (MPs) based oral biopharmaceuticals delivery systems has still not culminated well enough in commercial products. This is largely due to the drugs being exposed to the destabilizing environment during MP synthesis process, and partly because of complicated process conditions. Hence, we developed a solvent swelling-evaporation method of producing pH-responsive MPs with micron-sized macropores using poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethyl acrylate) in 1:1 ratio (commercial name: Eudragit® L100-55 polymer). We investigated the effects of temperature and evaporation time on pore formation, freeze-drying induced pore closure, and the release profile of model drugs (fluorescent beads, lactase, and pravastatin sodium) encapsulated MPs in simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. Encapsulated lactase/pravastatin maintained > 60% of their activity due to the preservation of pore closure, which proved the potential of this proof-of-concept microencapsulation system. Importantly, the presence of macropores on MPs can be beneficial for easy drug loading, and solve the problem of bioactivity loss during the conventional MP fabrication-drug encapsulation steps. Therefore, pH-sensing MPs with macropores can contribute to the development of oral drug formulations for a wide variety of drugs and bio-macromolecules, having a various size ranging from genes to micron-sized ingredients with high therapeutic efficacy.