SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: European journal of pediatric surgery reports

137

Rectal atresia is a rare anorectal malformation, and its association with other anomalies is even more rare. This study presents a unique case of co-twin in which the surviving newborn male underwent surgery due to rectal atresia. Newborn screening tests identified congenital hypothyroidism. The surgical treatment consisted of three stages and thyroid hormones were replaced.

Concepts: Medicine, Thyroid disease, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Congenital disorders, Newborn screening, Congenital hypothyroidism

1

Circumcision is one of the most common pediatric surgical procedures performed all over the world and especially in Arab and Islamic countries. Many complications have been documented following this maneuver. We report on a rare case of intraperitoneal bladder rupture in a 7-day-old baby who was circumcised on his second day using the guillotine method. He presented to us with gangrene of the tip of the penis and a failure to void urine associated with progressive abdominal distension. Ultrasound revealed severe ascites. Aspiration and analysis confirmed the fluid to be urine. Ascending cystourethrogram was performed revealing a perforation of the posterior bladder wall near the trigone. Exploration was performed and repair done. Postoperative course was uneventful.

1

Posterior urethral valves are the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in male newborns. Initial catheter drainage alleviates the urethral obstruction before definitive management by valve ablation. Newborns with posterior urethral valves often present with hypercontractile bladders that may inhibit upper tract drainage despite bladder catheterization. Anticholinergic agents are commonly used to treat detrusor hyperactivity, with oxybutynin being the most commonly used. We report the first case of a newborn with posterior urethral valves and ureterovesical junction obstruction caused by detrusor hypertrophy who underwent urgent intravesical instillation of oxybutynin at high doses in an attempt to avoid a diversion procedure.

0

Ingestion of a foreign body is a frequent diagnosis in the pediatric population. In a small percentage of cases, foreign bodies themselves are strong magnets, and swallowing of multiple magnetic bodies can lead to serious complications in the gastrointestinal tract. Two consecutive case reports of patients who swallowed two magnetic beads are presented. In both cases, the abdominal radiograph described two magnets in contact, one in the area of the left hypochondrium and one in the right hypogastrium. Attempts of endoscopic localization and removal were unsuccessful. Due to the failure of magnet progression, laparoscopic revision of the abdominal cavity was indicated in both patients on the 25th and 4th day after swallowing. Using the magnetic forces between the magnets and the laparoscopic instruments, the foreign bodies were localized in the appendix of the first patient and in the cecum of the other one. The magnets were extracted together with the removal of the appendix in both patients. This is one of the first articles describing the successful extraction of foreign magnetic bodies from the gastrointestinal tract via laparoscopic appendectomy.

0

Congenital diaphragmatic herniae (CDH) with associated intrathoracic ectopic kidneys are rare congenital anomalies, with a reported incidence of only 0.25%. The authors report a case of a 24-day-old baby girl who was diagnosed with a left-sided CDH on a chest X-ray taken for pneumonia. Computed tomography scan showed CDH hernia, containing small and large bowel and whole left kidney with adrenal gland. Thoracoscopic reduction in the bowel, kidney, and adrenal gland into the abdomen and primary closure of the defect was achieved with no complications. During investigation of the child, it was discovered that her maternal aunt had also had a left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia containing the kidney, which was treated via open surgery after birth; she subsequently developed renal cell carcinoma and required radical nephrectomy of that kidney during her third decade.

0

Pediatric penile skin grafting is rarely performed. We present a case series of four pediatric patients receiving skin grafting due to the loss of penile skin. The four boys were followed up for 1 to 5 years. One full-thickness skin graft and three split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) survived well with low Vancouver scar scale scores. One boy gradually developed lymphedema of the distal foreskin and underwent a second preputioplasty. He presented with normal erectile function and did not experience any pain. We propose thick STSGs as the most appropriate choice for pediatric penile skin reconstruction. Lymphedema of the foreskin is an important long-term complication of penile skin grafting.

0

Partial splenectomy allows preserving immune function in benign splenic lesions such as epidermoid cysts. Determining the plane of resection and perfusion of the spleen remnant can be difficult, especially in centrally located lesions. We present a 13-year-old girl with a symptomatic splenic cyst of 6 cm in diameter located next to the splenic hilum. Laparoscopic partial splenectomy was performed through a 10-mm umbilical approach and three accessory 5-mm ports. Intraoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at 0.2 mg/kg guided the careful dissection of the splenic hilum and checked the spleen perfusion once the upper arterial branch was clamped. The subsequent wash-out of the ICG allowed inspection of the peripheral vascular return of the splenic remnant through polar veins. Surgery was uneventful with minimal blood loss. Follow-up ultrasound scan revealed a well-perfused small splenic remnant with no signs of recurrence. Laparoscopic partial splenectomy is feasible in benign splenic tumors, especially in those cases of peripheral location. Fluorescence facilitates the safe dissection of the splenic hilum, the visualization of the transection plane of the spleen and the perfusion of the remnant in cases of anatomically and technically complicated partial splenectomies.

0

Pulmonary sequestration (PS) is mostly asymptomatic but there is a proportion of fetuses that develop hydrops, leading to fetal or neonatal death. Fetal treatments are available, but postnatal management of the residual lesions is not uniformly defined. We present two cases of combined pre- and postnatal minimally invasive approach to complicated extra-lobar PS. Patient 1 presented with complicated PS at 31 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound-guided laser coagulation of the anomalous artery was successful. The patient was born asymptomatic at 38 weeks. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a residual mass, confirmed by computed tomography (CT) at 6 months. No systemic artery was described, but perfusion was present. We decided for thoracoscopic resection. A residual artery was identified and sealed. Patient 2 presented with complicated PS at 25 weeks of gestation, underwent laser coagulation of the anomalous artery and was born asymptomatic at 38 weeks. Neonatal MRI showed persistence of the lesion, confirmed by CT scan at 4 months. We proceeded with thoracoscopic resection. A residual vessel was ligated. The patients 1 and 2 are now 24 and 21 months old, respectively, and healthy. Prenatal treatment of complicated PS is a life-saving procedure. Postnatal thoracoscopic resection of the residual lesion is feasible and safe; we believe it is the best course of treatment to grant the complete excision of the malformation.

0

Congenital perineal lesions are rare and can occur along with other birth defects such as anorectal malformations (ARMs) and urogenital anomalies. A colorectal hamartoma associated with a urogenital anomaly without ARM is extremely rare. We recently treated a newborn with posterior hypospadias and a solid perineal mass diagnosed as a colorectal hamartoma.

0

Primary myoepithelial carcinoma of the lung (PMC-L) arising from the bronchial glands in lower respiratory tract is exceedingly rare. Thus far, few cases in adults and only one in a pediatric patient have been recorded. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PMC-L successfully removed in a child, focusing on the importance of multidisciplinary primary surgery for the treatment of this tumor. A 7-year-old girl was admitted for persistent cough and fever; she was unresponsive to oral antibiotics. Chest radiography showed loss of volume of left lung sustained by almost total atelectasis. After routine clinical investigations, she was referred for computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging that documented the presence of a mass occupying the entire left upper lobe, infiltrating the pulmonary hilum (main bronchus, pulmonary artery, superior pulmonary vein, and pericardium). After multidisciplinary evaluation, the histopathologic diagnosis of PMC-L was established using ultrasonography-guided transthoracic core needle biopsy and bronchoscopic biopsies. She was then subjected to left pneumonectomy under extracorporeal circulation and positioning of a thoracic expander filled with 200 mL of saline solution. The postoperative course was uneventful. With TREP (very Rare Tumor in Pediatric Age) consent radiotherapy was performed (61.2 Gy). At the 10-month follow-up, the patient was alive, breathing normally without any oxygen support, without recurrence of PMC-L or metastasis, and without any chest deformity. To our knowledge, this is the first case where a pediatric patient was successfully operated for PMC-L involving the whole lung. Extracorporeal circulation enabled us to perform radical primary surgery. Prosthesis implant not only maintained normal chest expansion but also allowed focused radiotherapy, thus enabling us to prevent damage to vital organs.