SciCombinator

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Journal: European journal of medicinal chemistry

28

Chagas disease chemotherapy, currently based on only two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole, is far from satisfactory and therefore the development of new antichagasic compounds remains an important goal. On the basis of antichagasic properties previously described for some 1,2-disubstituted 5-nitroindazolin-3-ones (21, 33) and in order to initiate the optimization of activity of this kind of compounds, we have prepared a series of related analogs (22-32, 34-38, 58 and 59) and tested in vitro these products against epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. 2-Benzyl-1-propyl (22), 2-benzyl-1-isopropyl (23) and 2-benzyl-1-butyl (24) derivatives have shown high trypanocidal activity and low unspecific toxicity. Other indazole derivatives with different substitution patterns (1-substituted 3-alkoxy-1H-indazoles and 2-substituted 3-alkoxy-2H-indazoles), arising from the synthetic procedures used to prepare the mentioned indazolinones, have moderate to low effectiveness. The exploration of SAR information using the concept of an activity landscape has been carried out with SARANEA software. We have also searched for structural similarities between 225 known antiprotozoan drugs and compound 22. The results confirm that compounds 22-24 constitute promising leads and that 5-nitroindazolin-3-one system is a novel anti-T. cruzi scaffold which may represent an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of Chagas disease.

Concepts: Infectious disease, Chagas disease, Trypanosoma, Trypanosoma cruzi, Carlos Chagas, Trypanosoma rangeli, Nifurtimox, Benznidazole

28

Eleven mononuclear copper(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of Schiff base ligands derived from 3,5-dibromosalicylaldehyde/3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde were synthesized and determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. The crystal structures of complexes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 11 present the square-planar coordination geometry at the metal center and complexes 7, 9 and 10 show the distorted tetrahedral geometry. While one copper center in 3 has a square-planar geometry, the other copper is slightly distorted square-planar. The inhibitory activities of all the obtained complexes were tested in vitro against jack bean urease. It was found that Schiff base copper(II) complexes 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 showed strong urease inhibitory activities (IC(50) = 1.51-3.52 μM) compared with acetohydroxamic acid (IC(50) = 62.52 μM), which was a positive reference. Their structure-activity relationships were further discussed.

Concepts: Acid, Coordination complex, Ligand, Metal, Zinc, Coordination chemistry, Solid, Schiff base

28

A large series of (4-substituted-thiazol-2-yl)hydrazine derivatives was synthesized in good yield and assayed for their in vitro human monoamine oxidase (hMAO) inhibitory activity and selectivity. Most of them showed inhibitory activity in the nanomolar range and hMAO-B selective inhibition higher than reference drugs, demonstrating our interest in this privileged scaffold. The structure-activity relationship of the different rings on the N1-hydrazine position indicated that a pyridine ring was preferred with the presence of electron-withdrawing substituents on the aryl group at C4 of the thiazole nucleus. The substituent on the α-carbon to the N1-hydrazine moiety (methyl or hydrogen) had a great influence on the activity and hMAO-B selectivity. Moreover, the reversibility of the enzyme inhibition for the best active compound was reported.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Signal transduction, Chemical element, Enzyme inhibitor, Functional groups, Neurotransmitter, Medicinal chemistry, Monoamine oxidase

27

Human telomeres play a key role in protecting chromosomal ends from fusion events; they are composed of d(TTAGGG) repeats, ranging in size from 3 to 15 kb. They form G-quadruplex DNA structures, stabilized by G-quartets in the presence of cations, and are involved in several biological processes. In particular, a telomere maintenance mechanism is provided by a specialized enzyme called telomerase, a reverse transcriptase able to add multiple copies of the 5'-GGTTAG-3' motif to the end of the G-strand of the telomere and which is over-expressed in the majority of cancer cells. The central cation has a crucial role in maintaining the stability of the structure. Based on its nature, it can be associated with different topological telomeric quadruplexes, which depend also on the orientation of the DNA strands and the syn/anti conformation of the guanines. Such a polymorphism, confirmed by the different structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), prompted us to apply a computational protocol in order to investigate the conformational properties of a set of known G-quadruplex ligands and their molecular recognition against six different experimental models of the human telomeric sequence d[AG3(T2AG3)3]. The average AutoDock correlation between theoretical and experimental data yielded an r(2) value equal to 0.882 among all the studied models. Such a result was always improved with respect to those of the single folds, with the exception of the parallel structure (r(2) equal to 0.886), thus suggesting a key role of this G4 conformation in the stacking interaction network. Among the studied binders, a trisubstituted acridine and a dibenzophenanthroline derivative were well recognized by the parallel and the mixed G-quadruplex structures, allowing the identification of specific key contacts with DNA and the further design of more potent or target specific G-quadruplex ligands.

Concepts: DNA, Chromosome, DNA replication, Reverse transcriptase, Telomerase, G-quadruplex, Telomere, Protein Data Bank

27

Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) play an essential role in the regulation of endogenous inflammation and immunity. In the present studies, a large series of pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives bearing an arylacetamide chain at position 2 was synthesized and tested for FPR agonist activity. The pyridazin-3(2H)-one ring was confirmed to be an appropriate scaffold to support FPR agonist activity, and its modification at the 4 and 6 positions led to the identification of additional active agonists, which induced intracellular Ca(2+) flux in HL-60 cells transfected with either FPR1, FPR2, or FPR3. Seven formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1)-specific and several mixed FPR1/FPR2 dual agonists were identified with low micromolar EC50 values. Furthermore, these agonists also activated human neutrophils, inducing intracellular Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis. Finally, molecular docking studies indicated that the most potent pyridazin-3(2H)-ones overlapped in their best docking poses with fMLF and WKYMVM peptides in the FPR1 and FPR2 ligand binding sites, respectively. Thus, pyridazinone-based compounds represent potential lead compounds for further development of selective and/or potent FPR agonists.

Concepts: Protein, Signal transduction, Cell biology, Cell signaling, Receptor antagonist, Serotonin, Agonist, Formyl peptide receptor

27

2,4,5-Trimethoxy chalcones and analogues were synthesized from asaronaldehyde derived from β-asarone. These novel compounds when tested against three human tumour cell lines (MCF-7, SW-982 and HeLa) using MTT assay, revealed that chalcones possessing electron donor groups in para position to carbonyl moiety of phenyl ring A, showed better inhibitory activity (2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 17). When evaluated for antioxidant activities, compound 15 exhibited better free radical scavenging property in DPPH assay while compounds 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 16, and 18 showed significant NO scavenging activity. All compounds exhibited very good phenyl hydrazine induced haemolysis of erythrocytes in phenylhydrazine assay. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) study using in-silico analysis matched well with in-vitro tumour cell inhibitory activity.

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Oncology, Cell culture, Cytotoxicity, Functional groups, Aromatic compounds, Hydrazine

27

Isosteviol (1) has been reported to exhibit moderate vasorelaxant activity. In order to enhance the bioactivity of this compound, chemical modification of 1 to the dihydro analog, ent-16β-hydroxybeyeran-19-oic acid (2), was undertaken. Compound 2 was then converted to the corresponding acetate derivative, ent-16β-acetoxybeyeran-19-oic acid (3). Biotransformation of compounds 1-3 by the fungus Cunninghamella echinulata NRRL 1386 was investigated and the metabolites 4-9 were obtained. The substrates and their metabolites were subjected to in vitro rat aorta relaxant activity evaluation. The metabolite 4, ent-7α-hydroxy-16-ketobeyeran-19-oic acid, exhibited the most highly potent activity, with EC50 of 3.46 nM, whereas the parent compound 1 showed relatively low activity (EC50 57.41 nM). A 17-fold increase in vasorelaxant activity of the analog 4 relative to compound 1 is of particular significant. Compound 4 exerted vasorelaxant activity at particularly low concentration and the vasorelaxant profile reached maximum at relatively low concentration, especially when compared with acetylcholine, the positive control.

Concepts: Chemistry, Chemical element, Toxicology, Relative, Chemical compound, Analog

26

In an effort to develop novel vitamin D3 analogues, a series of aromatic compounds was synthetized, using efficient Negishi cross coupling between alkenylzinc reagents of the C,D-ring moiety of vitamin D3, and various substituted aromatic halides as A-ring mimics. The study aimed at exploring the influence of the replacement of the original vitamin D3 diene by a styrene unit on the biological activities. Potency in the induction of the differentiation of HL-60 cells for the lead compound 36 was 12 fold less important than calcitriol correlating with a weaker binding affinity for VDR.

Concepts: DNA, Pharmacology, Vitamin D, Benzene, Aromaticity, Calcitriol receptor, Affinity, Conjugated system

26

The development of peptide fusion inhibitors based on short synthetic peptides represents a promising option in the fight against HIV-1 infection, especially in individuals infected with multiresistant HIV-1 strains. GBV-C has the beneficial effect of retarding the progression of AIDS in people who are co-infected with both the GBV-C and HIV viruses. In previous works, the E1(22-39) GBV-C sequence (E1P8lin) was found to be capable of inhibiting the interaction of HIV-1 FP with bilayers and its cyclic analogue (E1P8cyc) showed a higher anti-HIV-1 activity. In the present work, in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the interaction of E1P8 peptides with HIV-1 FP, we analyzed direct interactions between peptides at the molecular level. Our results support that E1P8cyc might be more potent at blocking HIV-1 entry than E1P8lin as a consequence of the structure induced in the complex formed with HIV-1 FP, which is able to modify the conformation adopted by this functional domain of the HIV-1 gp41 protein in target cell membranes.

Concepts: HIV, Protein, Gene, Bacteria, Virus, Cell membrane, Infection, Peptide

26

A novel series of arylpiperazinylalkyl 2-benzoxazolones and 2-benzothiazolones 18-38 was designed, synthesized and tested to evaluate their affinity for the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. Compounds with a 2-benzothiazolone nucleus generally had affinity values higher than the corresponding 2-benzoxazolone compounds. In particular, derivatives possessing a six or seven carbon chain linker between 2-benzothiazolone and arylpiperazine had Ki values in the subnanomolar range for the 5-HT1A receptor and in the low nanomolar range for the 5-HT7 receptor, indicating that they may be interesting dual ligands. Molecular modeling studies revealed different docking poses for the investigated compounds in homology models of 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptors, which explained their experimentally determined affinities and general low selectivity. Additionally, structural interaction fingerprints analysis identified the important amino acid residues for the specific interactions of long-chain arylpiperazines within the binding pockets of both serotonin receptors.

Concepts: Protein, Amino acid, Receptor, Cell signaling, Serotonin, 5-HT receptor, Aripiprazole, 5-HT1A receptor