SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: European journal of histochemistry : EJH

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Cannabinoid receptors have been localized in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as on cells of the immune system, but recent studies on animal tissue gave evidence for the presence of cannabinoid receptors in different types of tissues. Their presence was supposed also in myofascial tissue, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may help resolve myofascial trigger points and relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, until now the expression of CB1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) and CB2 (cannabinoid receptor 2) in fasciae has not yet been established. Small samples of fascia were collected from volunteers patients during orthopedic surgery. For each sample were done a cell isolation, immunohistochemical investigation (CB1 and CB2 antibodies) and real time RT-PCR to detect the expression of CB1 and CB2. Both cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human fascia and in human fascial fibroblasts culture cells, although to a lesser extent than the control gene. We can assume that the expression of mRNA and protein of CB1 and CB2 receptors in fascial tissue are concentrated into the fibroblasts. This is the first demonstration that the fibroblasts of the muscular fasciae express CB1 and CB2. The presence of these receptors could help to provide a description of cannabinoid receptors distribution and to better explain the role of fasciae as pain generator and the efficacy of some fascial treatments. Indeed the endocannabinoid receptors of fascial fibroblasts can contribute to modulate the fascial fibrosis and inflammation.

Concepts: Immune system, Nervous system, Antibody, Protein, Hormone, Receptor, Cannabinoid receptor, Myofascial release

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The human meniscus plays a crucial role for transmission and distribution of load across the knee, as well as shock absorption, joint stability, lubrication, and congruity. The aim of this study was to compare the complex geometry, and unique ultrastructure and tissue composition of the meniscus in healthy (control) and pathological conditions to provide understanding of structural changes that could be helpful in the future design of targetted therapies and improvement of treatment indications. We analyzed meniscus samples collected from 3 healthy multi-organ donors (median age, 66 years), 5 patients with traumatic meniscal tear (median age, 41 years) and 3 patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) for end-stage osteoarthritis (OA) (median age, 72 years). We evaluated the extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, the appearance and distribution of areas of calcification, and modifications of cellular organization and structure by electron microscopy and histology. The ECM structure was similar in specimens from traumatic meniscus tears compared to those from patients with late-stage OA, showing disorganization of collagen fibers and increased proteoglycan content. Cells of healthy menisci showed mainly diffuse chromatin and well preserved organelles. Both in traumatic and in OA menisci, we observed increased chromatin condensation, organelle degeneration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization, a portion of which contained markers of autophagic vacuoles. Areas of calcification were also observed in both traumatic and OA menisci, as well as apoptotic-like features that were particularly prominent in traumatic meniscal tear samples. We conclude that meniscal tissue from patients with traumatic meniscal injury demonstrate pathological alterations characteristic of tissue from older patients undergoing TKR, suggesting that they have high susceptibility to develop OA.

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Cav3 channels consist of three isoforms, Cav3.1 (α1G), Cav3.2 (α1H), and Cav3.3 (α1I), which produce low-threshold spikes that trigger burst firings in nociceptive neurons of the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Although Cav3.2 plays a crucial role in pathological pain, its distribution in SDH still remains controversial. One study showed that Cav3.2 is ubiquitously expressed in neurons, but another study implied that Cav3.2 is expressed restricted to astrocytes. To unravel these discrepancies, we used methods of immunohistochemistry either with or without antigen retrieval (AR) pre-treatment to detect Cav3 in SDH and DRG from both rats and mice. Moreover, Cav3.2 mRNA was detected in mice SDH using in situ hybridization. We found that the expression pattern of Cav3.2 but not Cav3.1 and Cav3.3 in SDH were largely different with or without AR pre-treatment, which showed a neuron-like and an astrocyte-like appearance, respectively. Double staining further demonstrated that Cav3.2 was mainly co-stained with the neuronal marker NeuN in the presence of AR but was with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, marker for astrocytes) in the absence of AR pre-treatment. Importantly, Cav3.2 mRNA was mainly co-localized with Cav3.2 but not GFAP. Together, our findings indicate that AR pre-treatment or not impacts the expression pattern of Cav3.2, which may make a significant contribution to the future study of Cav3.2 in SDH.

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Prolactin (PRL) production in mammals has been demonstrated in extrapituitary gland, which can activate autocrine/paracrine signaling pathways to regulate physiological activity. In the current study, we characterized the gene expression profiles of PRL, prolactin receptor (PRLR) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) in the scented glandular tissues of the muskrats, to further elucidate the relationship between PRL and the scented glandular functions of the muskrats. The weight and volume of the scented glands in the breeding season were significantly higher than those of the non-breeding season. Immunohistochemical data showed that PRL, PRLR and STAT5/phospho-STAT5 (pSTAT5) were found in the glandular and epithelial cells of the scented glands in both seasons. Furthermore, we found that PRL, PRLR and STAT5 had higher immunoreactivities in the scented glands during the breeding season when compared to those of the non-breeding season. In parallel, the gene expressions of PRL, PRLR and STAT5 were significantly higher in the scented glands during the breeding season than those of the non-breeding season. The concentrations of PRL in scented glandular tissues and sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and their levels were both notably higher in the breeding season than those of the non-breeding season. These findings suggested that the scented glands of the muskrats were capable of extrapituitary synthesis of PRL, which might attribute PRL a specific function to an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine mediator.

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As the title suggests, this book presents several techniques to study cells migration in vivo, in vitro, ex vivo and with different model systems to dissect many of the biochemical and biophysical properties (at both molecular and cellular levels) involved in the dynamics of migration and cell-to-cell communication…

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Leptin (Lep) stimulates keratinocytes to proliferate, intervenes in the wound healing and participates to hair follicle morphogenesis and cycle. While it is secreted by skin structures including epidermis and hair follicles, intradermal adipose tissue also seems to have a role in Lep secretion and accordingly in the control of hair follicle growth in mice and humans. Lep was investigated in the skin of humans and laboratory animals but there are not data regarding bovine species. The aim of this work was to study the expression of Lep and its receptor (LepR) in the skin of bovine and, at the same time, to investigate the presence and extension of intradermal adipose tissue. A morphological evaluation of the skin was performed while the presence and localization of Lep and LepR were analyzed by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. A high and thick dermis without adipocytes was observed. Hair follicles and sebaceous and sweat glands were located in the proximal part of the skin while a thick layer of connective tissue, lacking adipose cells, separated these structures by subcutis. RT-PCR evidenced the transcripts for both molecules. By immunohistochemistry, Lep and LepR were observed in the epidermis and hair follicles. Based on the absence of intradermal adipose tissue and the presence of both Lep and LepR in the epidermis and in the hair follicle epithelium, it can be posited that in bovine skin Lep participates to the control of epidermis growth and hair follicle cycle through a paracrine and autocrine mechanisms.

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The mammalian somatic cell providing the physiological milieu to germ cells growth and differentiation is the Sertoli cell, named after the Italian physiologist Enrico Sertoli. Sertoli described for the first time this functionally multitasking cell in 1865 (when he was 23 years-old!) in human testicular tissues while ending up his medicine studies at the University of Pavia…

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The electric ray (Torpedo Marmorata Risso) provides an animal model for the detection of early intraembryonic hemopoietic stem cells in sea vertebrates. The spleen of this bone-marrowless vertebrate appears to be the major site of hemopoietic stem cell differentiation during development and in adulthood. Splenic development in this species was investigated and hemopoietic stem cells were detected in this organ by immunocytochemistry utilizing CD34 and CD38 antibodies. At stage I (2-cm-long embryos with external gills), the spleen contains only mesenchymal cells. At stage II (3-4 cm-long embryos with a discoidal shape and internal gills), an initial red pulp was observed in the spleen, without immunostained cells. At stage III (10-11-cm-long embryos), the spleen contained well-developed white pulp, red pulp and ellipsoids. Image analysis at stage III showed four cell populations, i.e. CD34+/CD38-, CD34+/CD38+, CD34-/CD38+, and CD34-/CD38- cells. The present findings, obtained from an elasmobranch, indicate that the CD34 and CD38 phenotypes are conserved through vertebrate evolution.

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Cortical microinfarcts are the most widespread form of brain infarction but frequently remain undetected by standard neuroimaging protocols. Moreover, microinfarcts are only partially detectable in hematoxylin-eosin-stained (H and E) 4-10 µm paraffin sections at routine neuropathological examination. In this short report, we provide two staining protocols for visualizing cortical microinfarcts in 100-300 µm sections. For low-power microscopy, the first protocol combines aldehyde fuchsine staining for detection of lipofuscin granules and macrophages with Darrow red counterstaining for Nissl material. The second protocol combines collagen IV immunohistochemistry with aldehyde fuchsine/Darrow red or with erythrosin-phosphotungstic acid-aniline blue staining for detailed study of the capillary network. In the first protocol, microinfarcts are recognizable as radially-oriented funnel-like accumulations of aldehyde fuchsine-positive macrophages. The second protocol recognizes microinfarcts and alterations of the capillary network, at whose center accumulations of dead neurons and aldehyde fuchsine-positive macrophages cluster. In addition, the second protocol permits visualization of abnormalities within the capillary network associated with more recent microinfarcts. Both protocols can be useful for comparing MRI datasets with cortical microinfarcts in corresponding whole brain sections of 100-300 µm thickness.

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The impressive progress of histochemistry over the last 50 years has led to setting up specific and sensitive techniques to describe dynamic events, through the detection of specific molecules in the very place where they exist in live cells. The scientific field where histochemistry has most largely been applied is histopathology, with the aim to identify disease-specific molecular markers or to elucidate the etiopathological mechanisms. Numerous authors did however apply histochemistry to a variety of other research fields; their interests range from the microanatomy of animal and plant organisms to the cellular mechanisms of life. This is especially apparent browsing the contents of the histochemical journals where the articles on subjects other than pathology are the majority; these journals still keep a pivotal role in the field of cell and tissue biology, while being a forum for a diverse range of biologists whose scientific interests expand  the research horizon of histochemistry to ever novel subjects. Thus, histochemistry can always receive inspiring stimuli toward a continuous methodological refinement.