SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: European journal of histochemistry : EJH

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Cannabinoid receptors have been localized in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as on cells of the immune system, but recent studies on animal tissue gave evidence for the presence of cannabinoid receptors in different types of tissues. Their presence was supposed also in myofascial tissue, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may help resolve myofascial trigger points and relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, until now the expression of CB1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) and CB2 (cannabinoid receptor 2) in fasciae has not yet been established. Small samples of fascia were collected from volunteers patients during orthopedic surgery. For each sample were done a cell isolation, immunohistochemical investigation (CB1 and CB2 antibodies) and real time RT-PCR to detect the expression of CB1 and CB2. Both cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human fascia and in human fascial fibroblasts culture cells, although to a lesser extent than the control gene. We can assume that the expression of mRNA and protein of CB1 and CB2 receptors in fascial tissue are concentrated into the fibroblasts. This is the first demonstration that the fibroblasts of the muscular fasciae express CB1 and CB2. The presence of these receptors could help to provide a description of cannabinoid receptors distribution and to better explain the role of fasciae as pain generator and the efficacy of some fascial treatments. Indeed the endocannabinoid receptors of fascial fibroblasts can contribute to modulate the fascial fibrosis and inflammation.

Concepts: Immune system, Nervous system, Antibody, Protein, Hormone, Receptor, Cannabinoid receptor, Myofascial release

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Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main consequences of liver chronic disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma-related changes may be seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B. The aim of the current study was to quantitate liver tissue elements by stereological technique in patients with hepatitis B-related cancer and compare the results with control and only hepatitis B group. Needle liver biopsies from 40 patients with only chronic hepatitis B infection, from 41 patients with only early hepatocellular carcinoma, from 40 patients with early hepatitis B-related cancer and 30 healthy subjects (control group) were analyzed by stereological method using systematic uniform random sampling method. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections were used. The numerical density of hepatocytes, hepatocyte volume, numerical density of Kupffer cells, volume density of the connective tissue in the portal space, and volume density of the connective tissue were assessed. Quantitative analysis of liver samples indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the numerical density of hepatocytes, hepatocyte volume, numerical density of Kupffer cells, volume density of the connective tissue in the portal space, and volume density of the connective tissue between control and hepatitis B-related cancer and hepatitis B groups. Quantitative, stereological technique is simple and reliable for evaluating HCC in chronic hepatitis B. It is useful for assessing the liver tissue parameters. Stereology is recommended for the diagnosis of people prone to cancer in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

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Ozone is a strong oxidant, highly unstable atmospheric gas. Its medical use at low concentrations has been progressively increasing as an alternative/adjuvant treatment for several diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of mild ozonisation on human adipose-derived adult stem (hADAS) cells i.e., mesenchymal stem cells occurring in the stromal-vascular fraction of the fat tissue and involved in the tissue regeneration processes. hADAS cells were induced to differentiate into the adipoblastic lineage, and the effect of low ozone concentrations on the adipogenic process was studied by combining histochemical, morphometric and ultrastructural analyses. Our results demonstrate that ozone treatment promotes lipid accumulation in hADAS without inducing deleterious effects, thus paving the way to future studies aimed at elucidating the effect of mild ozonisation on adipose tissue for tissue regeneration and engineering.

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Formalin-fixed, paraffinembedded (FFPE) human brain tissues are very often stored in formalin for long time. Formalin fixation reduces immunostaining, and the DNA/RNA extraction from FFPE brain tissue becomes suboptimal. At present, there are different protocols of fixation and several procedures and kits to extract DNA/RNA from paraffin embedding tissue, but a gold standard protocol remains distant. In this study, we analyzed four types of fixation systems and compared histo and immuno-staining. Based on our results, we propose a modified method of combined fixation in formalin and formic acid for the autoptic adult brain to obtain easy, fast, safe and efficient immunolabelling of long-stored FFPE tissue. In particular, we have achieved an improved preservation of cellular morphology and obtained success in postmortem immunostaining for NeuN. This nuclear antigen is an important marker for mapping neurons, for example, to evaluate the histopathology of temporal lobe epilepsy or to draw the topography of cardiorespiratory brainstem nuclei in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). However, NeuN staining is frequently faint or lost in postmortem human brain tissues. In addition, we attained Fluoro Jade C staining, a marker of neurodegeneration, and immunofluorescent staining for stem cell antigens in the postnatal human brain, utilizing custom fit fixation procedures.

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Alveolar bone is not spontaneously regenerated following trauma or periodontitis. We previously proposed an animal model for new alveolar bone regeneration therapy based on the non-viral BMP-2/7 gene expression vector and in vivo electroporation, which induced the formation of new alveolar bone over the course of a week. Here, we analysed alveolar bone during a period of three weeks following gene transfer to periodontal tissue. Non-viral plasmid vector pCAGGS-BMP-2/7 or pCAGGS control was injected into palatal periodontal tissue of the first molar of the rat maxilla and immediately electroporated with 32 pulses of 50 V for 50 msec. Over the following three weeks, rats were double bone-stained by calcein and tetracycline every three days and mineral apposition rates (MAR) were measured. Double bone-staining revealed that MAR of alveolar bone was as similar level three days before BMP-2/7 gene transfer as three days after gene transfer. However, from 3 to 6 days, 6 to 9 days, 9 to 12 days, 12 to 15 days, 15 to 18 days, and 18 to 20 days after, MARs were significantly higher than prior to gene transfer. Our proposed gene therapy for alveolar bone regeneration combining non-viral BMP-2/7 gene expression vector and in vivo electroporation could increase alveolar bone regeneration potential in the targeted area for up to three weeks.

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Acetylation tubulin is one of the major post-translational modifications of microtubules. Stable microtubules are well known to contain acetylated tubulin. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of acetylated tubulin in the mouse cochlea during postnatal development. At postnatal day 1 (P1), acetylated tubulin was localized primarily to the auditory nerve inside the cochlea and their synaptic contacts with the inner and outer hair cells (IHCs and OHCs). In the organ of Corti, acetylated tubulin occurred first at the apex of pillar cells. At P5, acetylated tubulin first appeared in the phalangeal processes of Deiters' cells. At P8, staining was maintained in the phalangeal processes of Deiters' cells. At P10, labeling in Deiters' cells extended from the apices of OHCs to the basilar membrane. Labeling was expressed throughout the cytoplasm of pillar cells. At P12, acetylated tubulin displayed prominent and homogeneous labeling along the full length of the pillar cells. Linear labeling was present mainly in the Deiters' cell bodies underlying OHCs. Between P14 and P17, acetylated tubulin was strongly expressed in inner and outer pillar cells and Deiters' cells in a similar pattern as observed in the adult, and labeling in these cells were arranged in bundles. In addition, acetylated tubulin was intensely expressed in stria vascularis, root cell bodies, and a small number of fibrocytes of the spiral ligament until the adult. In the adult mouse cochlea, immunostaining continued to predominate in Deiters' cells and pillar cells. Immunolabeling formed cups securing OHCs basal portions, and continued presence of acetylated tubulin-labeled nerve terminals below IHCs was shown. Our results presented here underscored the essential role played by acetylated tubulin in postnatal cochlear development, auditory neurotransmission and cochlear mechanics.

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A concomitant action of multiple profibrotic mediators appears crucial in the development and progression of fibrosis. Sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1 phosphate and transforming growth factor-β/Smads pathways are both involved in pathogenesis of fibrosis in several organs by controlling differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and the epithelial to-mesenchymal transition. However, their direct involvement in chronic colitis-associated fibrosis it is not yet known. In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of some proteins implicated in sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1 phosphate and transforming growth factor-β/Smads pathways in Dextrane Sodium Sulphate (DSS)-induced colorectal fibrosis in mice. Compared to control mice, DSS-induced chronic colitis mice developed a marked intestinal fibrosis associated with a concomitant overexpression of TGF-β, p-Smad3, α-SMA, collagen I-III, SPHK1, RhoA, PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, p-mTOR. This study highlights the relationship between the two pathways and the possible role of SPHK1 in the intestinal fibrosis.  These results, if confirmed by in vitro studies, may have important clinical implications in the development of new therapeutical approaches in inflammatory bowel disease.

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We report that, labeling mouse muscle tissue, with mouse monoclonal antibodies specific to slow or fast myosin heavy chain (sMyHC and fMyHC, respectively), can lead to artefactual labeling of damaged muscle fibers, as hybrid fibers (sMyHC+ and fMyHC+).  We demonstrate that such erroneous immunophenotyping of muscle may be avoided, by performing colabeling or serial-section-labeling, to identify damaged fibers. The quadriceps femoris muscle group (QF) in 7-month-old, male, C57BL/6J mice had: 1.21 ± 0.21%, 98.34 ± 1.06%, 0.07 ± 0.01%, and 0.53 ± 0.85% fibers, that were, sMyHC+, fMyHC+, hybrid, and damaged, respectively.  All fibers in the tibialis anterior muscle (TA) of 3-month-old, male, C57BL/6J mice were fMyHC+; and at 3 days after injurious eccentric contractions, there was no fiber-type shift, but ~ 18% fibers were damaged.

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Cholinergic systems play a role in basic cerebral functions and its dysfunction is associated with deficit in neurodegenerative disease. Mechanisms involved in human brain diseases, are often approached by using fish models, especially cyprinids, given basic similarities of the fish brain to that of mammals. In the present paper, the organization of central cholinergic systems have been described in the cyprinid Cyprinus carpio, the common carp, by using specific polyclonal antibodies against ChAT, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine, that is currently used as a specific marker for cholinergic neurons in all vertebrates.  In this work, serial transverse sections of the brain and the spinal cord were immunostained for ChAT. Results showed that positive neurons are present in several nuclei of the forebrain, the midbrain, the hindbrain and the spinal cord. Moreover, ChAT-positive neurons were detected in the synencephalon and in the cerebellum. In addition to neuronal bodies, afferent varicose fibers were stained for ChAT in the ventral telencephalon, the preoptic area, the hypothalamus and the posterior tuberculum. No neuronal cell bodies were present in the telencephalon. The comparison of cholinergic distribution pattern in the Cyprinus carpio central nervous system has revealed similarities but also some interesting differences with other cyprinids. Our results provide additional information on the cholinergic system from a phylogenetic point of view and may add new perspectives to physiological roles of cholinergic system during evolution and the neuroanatomical basis of neurological diseases.

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Epidemiological studies have shown an association between hypertension and knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) can aggravate mechanical loading-induced knee OA in mice. Eight-week-old male Tsukuba hypertensive mice (THM) and C57BL/6 mice were divided into running and non-running groups. Mice in the running group were forced to run (25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week) on a treadmill. All mice in the four groups (n=10 in each group) were euthanized after 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks of running or natural breeding. Cartilage degeneration in the left knees was histologically evaluated using the modified Mankin score. Expression of Col X, MMP-13, angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), and AT2R was examined immunohistochemically. To study the effects of stimulation of the AT1R in chondrocytes by mechanical loading and/or Angiotensin II (AngII) on transduction of intracellular signals, phosphorylation levels of JNK and Src were measured in bovine articular chondrocytes cultured in three-dimensional agarose scaffolds. After 4 weeks, the mean Mankin score for the lateral femoral condylar cartilage was significantly higher in the THM running group than in the C57BL/6 running group and non-running groups. AT1R and AT2R expression was not detected at 0 weeks in any group but was noted after 4 weeks in the THM running group. AT1R expression was also noted at 8 weeks in the C57BL/6 running group. The expression levels of AT1R, COL X, and MMP-13 in chondrocytes were significantly higher in the THM running group than in the control groups. Positive significant correlations were noted between the Mankin score and the rate of AT1R-immunopositive cells, between the rates of AT1R- and Col X-positive cells, and between the rates of AT1R- and AT2R-positive cells. The phosphorylation level of JNK was increased by cyclic compression loading or addition of AngII to the cultured chondrocytes and was reversed by pretreatment with an AT1R blocker. A synergistic effect on JNK phosphorylation was observed between compression loading and AngII addition. Transgene activation of renin and angiotensinogen aggravated mechanical load-induced knee OA in mice. These findings suggest that AT1R expression in chondrocytes is associated with early knee OA and plays a role in the progression of cartilage degeneration. The RAS may be a common molecular mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and knee OA.