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Journal: European journal of clinical pharmacology


The objective of the study was to examine the safety of ginger use during pregnancy on congenital malformations and selected pregnancy outcomes.

Concepts: Cohort study, Congenital disorder, Congenital disorders, Congenital


Our aim was to characterize Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) related to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to involvement of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzymes in a pharmacovigilance database.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Cytochrome P450, Adverse drug reaction, Cytochrome P450 reductase


To test the ability a new Spanish primary care research database (BIFAP) to capture the association between upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and NSAIDs and other drugs and compare the results with previous studies.

Concepts: Gastroenterology, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding


To test if two of the adverse event triggers proposed by the Institute of Healthcare Improvement can detect adverse drug events (ADEs) in a UK secondary care setting, using an electronic prescribing and health record system.


PURPOSE: Pregabalin (PRG) is approved for the treatment of neuropathic pain, partial seizures and generalised anxiety disorder in many countries and currently under study for other indications. Supported by case reports and the results of a limited number of studies there is an ongoing debate on the potential of PRG to cause addictive behaviours. However, currently available evidence on this issue is sparse, and any definitive assessment of PRG’s potential for abuse and dependence is not yet in sight. The aim of our study was to identify the number of cases of PRG abuse or dependence reported to the database of a German medical regulatory body and to obtain insights into further usage-specific parameters. METHODS: We conducted a query of the entire database of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) regarding reports of PRG abuse or dependence and analysed these cases on the basis of several parameters. RESULTS: A total of 55 reports of PRG abuse or dependence were identified (mean age 36 years, 64 % of reports involved males). The first reports were submitted to BfArM in 2008, and the reporting frequency has increased up to the present. Mean daily PRG dosage was 1424 mg. Current or previous polytoxicomania was present in 40 and 42 % of cases, respectively. Psychiatric diagnoses other than substance-related disorders were reported in 13 (24 %) cases. In about one-third of the patients withdrawal syndromes subsequent to discontinuation of PRG were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Cases of PRG abuse or dependence have been reported to the BfArM since 2008, with a marked increase of such reports in subsequent years. Male sex and a history of polytoxicomania may be possible risk factors for the development of addictive behaviours related to PRG.

Concepts: Drug addiction, Addiction, Antidepressant, Generalized anxiety disorder, Panic disorder, Physical dependence, Withdrawal, Pregabalin


Detection and reporting of drug-induced life-threatening potassium disturbances and the study of associated factors under a Pharmacovigilance Program using Laboratory Signals at a Hospital (PPLSH) during a 2-year period.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Pharmacy


Patterns of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) were analysed, and signals for detecting ADRs were developed from the analysis.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Intensive care medicine, Adverse drug reaction


PURPOSE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relative bioavailability between the generic tacrolimus products that are presently authorized in Spain by adjusted indirect comparison. This was based on demonstration of bioequivalence with the reference product (Prograf, Astellas Pharma), which makes these generic tacrolimus products prescribable, switchable and therapeutically equivalent to the reference product; yet, according to Spanish legislation, only prescribers can switch tacrolimus-containing products. METHODS: Data from independent bioequivalence studies that compare each generic product with the reference product were combined by adjusted indirect comparisons to investigate the relative bioavailability between generic drug products, since there is no direct bioequivalence study comparing generics to each other. RESULTS: Eight generic tacrolimus products in the form of capsules are presently authorized in Spain, but only five are marketed. These eight products represent only three different generic product developments. One product is authorized with four different names/companies, while another is authorized under three different names/companies. The adjusted indirect comparisons between generic products show bioequivalence within the conventional 80-125 % confidence interval acceptance criteria for area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax). CONCLUSION: Not only are the generic products bioequivalent with the reference product, but also with each other.

Concepts: Comparison, Generic drug, Comparisons, Marketing, Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, Tacrolimus, Astellas Pharma


AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of early oral ibuprofen administration on the incidence of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) and define the association between serum ibuprofen levels and ductal closure. METHOD: Preterm infants with a gestational age of <28 weeks and/or birth weight of <1,000 g were randomized either to the intervention (ibuprofen prophylaxis) or control group. The intervention group received oral ibuprofen 10 mg/kg within 12-24 h after birth followed by 5 mg/kg at 24 and 48 h. Serum ibuprofen levels after the treatment were analyzed in the intervention group, and the incidence of hsPDA and complication rates were compared between two groups. RESULTS: Nineteen infants who received one course (three doses) of prophylactic ibuprofen in the intervention group and 17 infants in the control group who underwent an echocardiographic examination on the fourth day of life were analyzed. hsPDA was observed in five (26 %) infants in the intervention group and ten (58 %) infants in the control group (p = 0.09). In the intervention group two infants experienced gastrointestinal bleeding two infants had spontaneous intestinal perforation, and two infants developed acute kidney failure. Mean serum ibuprofen level was 28.7 ± 16.9 mg/L in the intervention group, and there was no correlation between ibuprofen level obtained on the fourth day and ductal closure. CONCLUSION: Oral ibuprofen prophylaxis reduces the rates of hsPDA even it is not statistically significant. The ductal closure rate did not correlate with serum ibuprofen levels. Due to high prevalence of adverse events observed, our data do not support the use of oral ibuprofen for prophylaxis of hsPDA.

Concepts: Renal failure, Fetus, Obstetrics, Ibuprofen, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth, Ligamentum arteriosum


PURPOSE: Heart failure (CHF) guidelines recommend mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for all symptomatic patients treated with a combination of ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers. As opposed to both eplerenone trials, patients in RALES (spironolactone) received almost no beta-blockers. Since pharmacological properties differ between eplerenone and spironolactone, the prognostic benefit of spironolactone added to this baseline combination therapy needs clarification. METHODS: We included 4,832 CHF patients with chronic systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and the heart failure outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg. Propensity scores for spironolactone receipt were calculated for each patient and used for matching to patients without spironolactone. RESULTS: During a total follow-up of 17,869 patient-years, 881 patients (27.0 %) died in the non-spironolactone group and 445 (28.4 %) in the spironolactone group. Spironolactone was not associated with improved survival, neither in the complete sample (HR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.64-1.07; HR 1.03; 95 % CI 0.88-1.20; multivariate and propensity score adjusted respectively), nor in the propensity-matched cohort (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.82-1.18). CONCLUSION: In CHF outpatients we were unable to observe an association between the use of spironolactone and improved survival when administered in addition to a combination of ACE/ARB and beta-blockers.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Cardiology, Heart failure, Ejection fraction, Receptor antagonist, Propensity score, Mineralocorticoid receptor