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Journal: European heart journal


The data regarding the associations of body mass index (BMI) with cardiovascular (CVD) risk, especially for those at the low categories of BMI, are conflicting. The aim of our study was to examine the associations of body composition (assessed by five different measures) with incident CVD outcomes in healthy individuals.


To critically evaluate the clinical implications of the use of non-fasting rather than fasting lipid profiles and to provide guidance for the laboratory reporting of abnormal non-fasting or fasting lipid profiles.

Concepts: Chemistry, The Europeans, Russia, Profiles


To determine whether dietary pattern assessed by a simple self-administered food frequency questionnaire is associated with major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in high-risk patients with stable coronary artery disease.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Heart, Blood vessel, Heart disease, Artery, Coronary circulation, Cardiovascular system


Ambient air pollution is a leading cause of non-communicable disease globally. The largest proportion of deaths and morbidity due to air pollution is now known to be due to cardiovascular disorders. Several particulate and gaseous air pollutants can trigger acute events (e.g. myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure). While the mechanisms by which air pollutants cause cardiovascular events is undergoing continual refinement, the preponderant evidence support rapid effects of a diversity of pollutants including all particulate pollutants (e.g. course, fine, ultrafine particles) and gaseous pollutants such as ozone, on vascular function. Indeed alterations in endothelial function seem to be critically important in transducing signals and eventually promoting cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Here, we provide an updated overview of the impact of particulate and gaseous pollutants on endothelial function from human and animal studies. The evidence for causal mechanistic pathways from both animal and human studies that support various hypothesized general pathways and their individual and collective impact on vascular function is highlighted. We also discuss current gaps in knowledge and evidence from trials evaluating the impact of personal-level strategies to reduce exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and impact on vascular function, given the current lack of definitive randomized evidence using hard endpoints. We conclude by an exhortation for formal inclusion of air pollution as a major risk factor in societal guidelines and provision of formal recommendations to prevent adverse cardiovascular effects attributable to air pollution.


To examine associations of diastolic and systolic blood pressure (SBP) at age 50, 60, and 70 years with incidence of dementia, and whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) over the follow-up mediates this association.


Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is <3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) if >10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8-10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and adolescents with FH.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Coronary artery disease, Heart, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Low-density lipoprotein, Atheroma


Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is a poorly recognized heart disease that was initially regarded as a benign condition. Recently, it has been shown that TTS may be associated with severe clinical complications including death and that its prevalence is probably underestimated. Since current guidelines on TTS are lacking, it appears timely and important to provide an expert consensus statement on TTS. The clinical expert consensus document part I summarizes the current state of knowledge on clinical presentation and characteristics of TTS and agrees on controversies surrounding TTS such as nomenclature, different TTS types, role of coronary artery disease, and etiology. This consensus also proposes new diagnostic criteria based on current knowledge to improve diagnostic accuracy.


Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is typically provoked by negative stressors such as grief, anger, or fear leading to the popular term ‘broken heart syndrome’. However, the role of positive emotions triggering TTS remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to analyse the prevalence and characteristics of patients with TTS following pleasant events, which are distinct from the stressful or undesirable episodes commonly triggering TTS.

Concepts: Anxiety, Present, Time, Psychiatry, Emotion, Paul Ekman, Feeling, Emotions


The clinical expert consensus statement on takotsubo syndrome (TTS) part II focuses on the diagnostic workup, outcome, and management. The recommendations are based on interpretation of the limited clinical trial data currently available and experience of international TTS experts. It summarizes the diagnostic approach, which may facilitate correct and timely diagnosis. Furthermore, the document covers areas where controversies still exist in risk stratification and management of TTS. Based on available data the document provides recommendations on optimal care of such patients for practising physicians.


Road traffic noise has been associated with hypertension but evidence for the long-term effects on hospital admissions and mortality is limited. We examined the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise on hospital admissions and mortality in the general population.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Road, Traffic