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Journal: European heart journal. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used and have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, it remains unknown whether use of NSAIDs is associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

Concepts: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Anti-inflammatory, Paracetamol


Renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors/antagonists/blockers (RAASi) are a cornerstone in treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases especially in those with heart failure (HF) due to their proven effect on surrogate and hard end-points. RAASi are also the basis in treatment of arterial hypertension and they are furthermore indicated to reduce events and target organ damage in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, where they have specific indication because of the evidence of benefit. RAASi therapy, however, is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalaemia. Patients with chronic kidney disease and HF are at increased risk of hyperkalaemia and ∼50% of these patients experience two or more yearly recurrences. A substantial proportion of patients receiving RAASi therapy have their therapy down-titrated or more often discontinued even after a single episode of elevated potassium (K+) level.


Loop diuretics are recommended for relieving symptoms and signs of congestion in patients with chronic heart failure and are administered to more than 80% of them. However, several of their effects have not systematically been studied. Numerous cohort and four interventional studies have addressed the effect of diuretics on renal function; apart from one prospective study, which showed that diuretics withdrawal is accompanied by increase in some markers of early-detected renal injury, all others converge to the conclusion that diuretics receipt, especially in high doses is associated with increased rates of renal dysfunction. Although a long standing perception has attributed a beneficial effect to diuretics in the setting of chronic heart failure, many cohort studies support that their use, especially in high doses is associated with adverse outcome. Several studies have used propensity scores in order to match diuretic and non-diuretic receiving patients; their results reinforce the notion that diuretics use and high diuretics dose are true risk factors and not disease severity markers, as some have suggested. One small, randomized study has demonstrated that diuretics decrease is feasible and safe and accompanied by a better prognosis. In conclusion, until elegantly designed, randomized trials, powered for clinical endpoints answer the unsettled issues in the field, the use of diuretics in CHF will remain subject to physicians' preferences and biases and not evidence-based.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Medical terms, Hypertension, Randomized controlled trial, Cultural studies, Diuretic, Loop diuretic


The 2016 European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure society as well as the 2016 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Heart Failure Society of America heart failure (HF) guidelines confirm the class I indication for mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) in patients with chronic HF and a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HF-REF). MRAs in addition to an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), or an angiotensin receptor antagonist if an ACEi is not tolerated, along with a beta receptor antagonist and a diuretic (if required for congestion relief) make up the baseline therapy for all patients with chronic HF-REF. However, despite the finding that MRAs have been shown to reduce mortality as well as total and repeated hospitalizations in all patients with chronic HF-REF, as well as their class I indication in international guidelines, their use in guideline eligible patients remains suboptimal. Although much has been written about the mechanisms and role of MRAs in HF, this article will review the clinical studies and mechanisms thought responsible for their benefits in an attempt to increase their use in guideline eligible patients with HF as well as to provide the basis for understanding potential new opportunities for their use in patients with HF.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Heart failure, Ejection fraction, Receptor, Ligand, Receptor antagonist, Inverse agonist


Patient response to statin treatment is individual and varied. As a consequence, when using a specific-dose approach, as recommended in the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline, there will be a range of reductions in the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The aim of this study was to use individual patient data from the VOYAGER meta-analysis to determine the extent of the variability in LDL-C reduction in response to treatment across the recommended doses of different statins.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Low-density lipoprotein, Statin, Atheroma, Hypercholesterolemia, Statins


To compare the effectiveness and safety of standard dose rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily) and warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with a non-sex-related CHA2DS2-VASc score of 1.


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical correlates of DM, including management and outcomes, in the EURObservational Research Programme (EORP)-Atrial Fibrillation (AF) General Pilot (EORP-AF) Registry of the European Society of Cardiology.


To investigate the risk of all-cause mortality, recurrent VTE, and hospitalized bleeding in patients with VTE treated with either rivaroxaban or apixaban.


Little is known about the adherence to dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and reasons for discontinuation in real ife. Therefore we evaluated the 12-month course of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and ticagrelor during the acute phase.


The occurrence of drug intolerance (DI) after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or percutaneous coronary revascularization (PCI) is an important reason for quitting treatment. Nevertheless, the association between DI and major cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) is poorly reported in literature, therefore we analysed potential relationship between DI and MACCE (a composite of ACS, PCI, heart failure, stroke) during follow-up.