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Journal: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care


To examine whether undetectable high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) can be used to safely rule out non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) (using the limit of detection (LOD) as the cut-off) and to compare this strategy to serial hsTnT and the use of combined hsTnT and copeptin.

Concepts: Acute coronary syndrome


Patients with atrial fibrillation and concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) are at higher risk for myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death, often require antiplatelet therapy and are therefore exposed to an increased risk of bleeding. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety profile of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and concomitant CAD.


There is a need to find interventions able to reduce the extent of injury in reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) beyond timely reperfusion. In this review, we summarise the clinical impact of STEMI from epidemiological, clinical and biological perspectives. We also revise the pathophysiology underlying the ischaemia/reperfusion syndrome occurring in reperfused STEMI, including the several players involved in this syndrome, such as cardiomyocytes, microcirculation and circulating cells. Interventions aimed to reduce the resultant infarct size, known as cardioprotective therapies, are extensively discussed, putting the focus on both mechanical interventions (i.e. ischaemic conditioning) and promising pharmacological therapies, such as early intravenous metoprolol, exenatide and other glucose modulators, N-acetylcysteine as well as on some other classic therapies which have failed to be translated to the clinical arena. Novel targets for evolving therapeutic interventions to ameliorate ischaemia/reperfusion injury are also discussed. Finally, we highlight the necessity to improve the study design of future randomised clinical trials in the field, as well as to select patients better who can most likely benefit from cardioprotective interventions.


Early and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is central to successful treatment and improved outcomes. We aimed to investigate the impact of the initial hospital diagnosis on mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis


The aim of this study was to report the association between episodes of anger and acute myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with angiographically confirmed coronary occlusion.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Atheroma, Infarction, Troponin


Adherence to guideline-indicated care for the treatment of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is associated with improved outcomes. We investigated the extent and consequences of non-adherence to guideline-indicated care across a national health system.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Infarction, Troponin, Necrosis


The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects on ischaemic event prevention and mortality, since ticagrelor can induce dyspnoea as a side effect. The present article is intended to review the current literature regarding dyspnoea occurrence in ACS patients, especially those treated with ticagrelor, and to propose ticagrelor-associated dyspnoea management recommendations based on current knowledge.

Concepts: Present, Medical terms, Angina pectoris, Effect, Effectiveness, Clopidogrel, Acute coronary syndrome, The Current


Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) can be accompanied by various life-threatening complications, including cardiogenic shock. The exact incidence and prognostic relevance of cardiogenic shock in TTC patients has not been studied in detail.

Concepts: Cardiology, Cardiomyopathy, Shock, Cardiogenic shock, Cardiovascular diseases, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy


Diuretic resistance is a powerful predictor of adverse outcome in acute heart failure (AHF), irrespectively of underlying glomerular filtration rate. Metrics of diuretic efficacy such as natriuresis, urine output, weight loss, net fluid balance, or fractional sodium excretion, differ in their risk for measurement error, convenience, and biological plausibility, which should be taken into account when interpreting their results. Loop diuretic resistance in AHF has multiple causes including altered drug pharmacokinetics, impaired renal perfusion and effective circulatory volume, neurohumoral activation, post-diuretic sodium retention, the braking phenomenon and functional as well as structural adaptations in the nephron. Ideally, these mechanisms should guide specific treatment decisions with the goal of achieving complete decongestion. Therefore, volume overload needs to be identified correctly to avoid poor diuretic response due to electrolyte depletion or dehydration. Next, renal perfusion should be optimised if possible and loop diuretics should be prescribed above their threshold dose. Addition of thiazide-type diuretics should be considered when a progressive decrease in loop diuretic efficacy is observed with prolonged use (i.e., the braking phenomenon). Furthermore, thiazide-type diuretics are a useful addition in patients with low glomerular filtration rate. However, they limit free water excretion and are relatively contraindicated in cases of hypotonic hyponatremia, where acetazolamide is the better option. Finally, ultrafiltration should be considered in patients with refractory diuretic resistance as persistent volume overload after decongestive treatment is associated with worse outcomes. Whether more upfront use of any of these individually tailored decongestion strategies is superior to monotherapy with loop diuretics remains to be shown by adequately powered randomised clinical trials.


Evaluation of quality of care is an integral part of modern healthcare, and has become an indispensable tool for health authorities, the public, the press and patients. However, measuring quality of care is difficult, because it is a multifactorial and multidimensional concept that cannot be estimated solely on the basis of patients' clinical outcomes. Thus, measuring the process of care through quality indicators (QIs) has become a widely used practice in this context. Other professional societies have published QIs for the evaluation of quality of care in the context of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but no such indicators exist in Europe. In this context, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) has reflected on the measurement of quality of care in the context of AMI (ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)) and created a set of QIs, with a view to developing programmes to improve quality of care for the management of AMI across Europe. We present here the list of QIs defined by the ACCA, with explanations of the methodology used, scientific justification and reasons for the choice for each measure.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Measurement, Infarction, Troponin, Acute coronary syndrome, Cardiac stress test