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Journal: European heart journal. Acute cardiovascular care


To examine whether undetectable high sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) can be used to safely rule out non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) (using the limit of detection (LOD) as the cut-off) and to compare this strategy to serial hsTnT and the use of combined hsTnT and copeptin.

Concepts: Acute coronary syndrome


Patients with atrial fibrillation and concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) are at higher risk for myocardial infarction or cardiovascular death, often require antiplatelet therapy and are therefore exposed to an increased risk of bleeding. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the efficacy and safety profile of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation and concomitant CAD.


There is a need to find interventions able to reduce the extent of injury in reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) beyond timely reperfusion. In this review, we summarise the clinical impact of STEMI from epidemiological, clinical and biological perspectives. We also revise the pathophysiology underlying the ischaemia/reperfusion syndrome occurring in reperfused STEMI, including the several players involved in this syndrome, such as cardiomyocytes, microcirculation and circulating cells. Interventions aimed to reduce the resultant infarct size, known as cardioprotective therapies, are extensively discussed, putting the focus on both mechanical interventions (i.e. ischaemic conditioning) and promising pharmacological therapies, such as early intravenous metoprolol, exenatide and other glucose modulators, N-acetylcysteine as well as on some other classic therapies which have failed to be translated to the clinical arena. Novel targets for evolving therapeutic interventions to ameliorate ischaemia/reperfusion injury are also discussed. Finally, we highlight the necessity to improve the study design of future randomised clinical trials in the field, as well as to select patients better who can most likely benefit from cardioprotective interventions.


Early and accurate diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is central to successful treatment and improved outcomes. We aimed to investigate the impact of the initial hospital diagnosis on mortality for patients with acute myocardial infarction.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis


The aim of this study was to report the association between episodes of anger and acute myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with angiographically confirmed coronary occlusion.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Atheroma, Infarction, Troponin


Women with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) experience greater delays for percutaneous coronary intervention-facilitated reperfusion than men. Whether women and men benefit equally from current strategies to reduce ischaemic time and whether there are gender differences in factors determining delays is unclear.


The coronary computed tomography angiography features of acute spontaneous coronary artery dissection, an important cause of acute coronary syndrome in young women, have not been assessed.


Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) is a syndrome with different causes, characterised by clinical evidence of myocardial infarction with normal or near-normal coronary arteries on angiography. Its prevalence ranges between 5% and 25% of all myocardial infarction. The prognosis is extremely variable, depending on the cause of MINOCA. The key principle in the management of this syndrome is to clarify the underlying individual mechanisms to achieve patient-specific treatments. Clinical history, electrocardiogram, cardiac enzymes, echocardiography, coronary angiography and left ventricular angiography represent the first level diagnostic investigations to identify the causes of MINOCA. Regional wall motion abnormalities at left ventricular angiography limited to a single epicardial coronary artery territory identify an ‘epicardial pattern'whereas regional wall motion abnormalities extended beyond a single epicardial coronary artery territory identify a 'microvascular pattern’. The most common causes of MINOCA are represented by coronary plaque disease, coronary dissection, coronary artery spasm, coronary microvascular spasm, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, coronary thromboembolism, other forms of type 2 myocardial infarction and MINOCA of uncertain aetiology. This review aims at summarising the diagnosis and management of MINOCA, according to the underlying physiopathology.


Adherence to guideline-indicated care for the treatment of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) is associated with improved outcomes. We investigated the extent and consequences of non-adherence to guideline-indicated care across a national health system.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Infarction, Troponin, Necrosis


The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects on ischaemic event prevention and mortality, since ticagrelor can induce dyspnoea as a side effect. The present article is intended to review the current literature regarding dyspnoea occurrence in ACS patients, especially those treated with ticagrelor, and to propose ticagrelor-associated dyspnoea management recommendations based on current knowledge.

Concepts: Present, Medical terms, Angina pectoris, Effect, Effectiveness, Clopidogrel, Acute coronary syndrome, The Current