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Journal: European annals of otorhinolaryngology, head and neck diseases


INTRODUCTION: Systemic and topical nasal decongestants are widely used in otorhinolaryngology and general practice for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and as an adjuvant in certain forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. These products, very effective to rapidly improve nasal congestion, are sometimes available over the counter and can be the subject of misuse, which is difficult to control. The Société Française d'ORL has recently issued guidelines concerning the use of these decongestants in the doctor’s office and the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review of the literature conducted by the task force studied in detail the concepts of “rebound congestion” and “rhinitis medicamentosa” often reported in a context of misuse, particularly of topical nasal decongestants. The clinical and histopathological consequences of prolonged and repeated use of nasal decongestants have been studied on animal models and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Discordant results have been obtained, as some authors reported a harmful effect of nasal decongestants on the nasal mucosa, while others did not identify any significant changes. No study has been able to distinguish between inflammatory lesions induced by chronic rhinosinusitis and lesions possibly related to the use of nasal decongestants. DISCUSSION: The task force explained the rebound congestion observed after stopping nasal decongestant treatment by return of the nasal congestion induced by rhinosinusitis and rejected the concept of rhinitis medicamentosa in the absence of scientific evidence from patients with rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSION: Nasal decongestants are recommended for the management of acute rhinosinusitis to reduce the consequences of often disabling nasal congestion. They are also recommended during rhinoscopic examination and for preparation of the nasal mucosa prior to endonasal surgery.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Topical, Mucus, Pseudoephedrine, Nasal congestion, Topical decongestant, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Decongestant


Only 10% of intramuscular hemangiomas (IMH) are located in the head and neck region. There are very few reports of masseteric location. The present study of a case of intra-masseteric cavernous hemangioma discusses clinical presentation, paraclinical diagnostic workup and treatment options.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Masseter muscle, Masseteric artery


Nasal irrigation plays a non-negligible role in the treatment of numerous sinonasal pathologies and postoperative care. There is, however, a wide variety of protocols. The present review of the evidence-based literature sought objective arguments for optimization and efficacy. It emerged that large-volume low-pressure nasal douche optimizes the distribution and cleansing power of the irrigation solution in the nasal cavity. Ionic composition and pH also influence mucociliary clearance and epithelium trophicity. Seawater is less rich in sodium ions and richer in bicarbonates, potassium, calcium and magnesium than is isotonic normal saline, while alkaline pH and elevated calcium concentration optimized ciliary motility in vitro. Bicarbonates reduce secretion viscosity. Potassium and magnesium promote healing and limit local inflammation. These results show that the efficacy of nasal irrigation is multifactorial. Large-volume low-pressure nasal irrigation using undiluted seawater seems, in the present state of knowledge, to be the most effective protocol.

Concepts: Water, Calcium, PH, Sodium, Potassium, Seawater, Electrolysis, Nasal irrigation


Newborns are obligatory nasal breathers. Therefore, nasal obstruction can lead to cyanosis and desaturation. In spite of being very rare, congenital bilateral dacryocystocele is a possible etiology for neonatal respiratory distress.


Intracranial complications of acute rhinosinusitis are rare, but may turn life-threatening.


There is at present no consensus concerning surgical techniques for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although both subtotal and total parathyroidectomy provide low rates of recurrence, they may induce hypoparathyroidism, damaging the bone and cardiovascular systems. The aim of our study was to compare ¾ and 7/8 parathyroidectomy in this population and to discuss the potential benefit of more conservative treatment.


Shared decision-making (SDM) is a collaborative process in which patients and family members make healthcare decisions together with their clinician. The objective of this study was to explore how pediatric otolaryngologists involve parents in SDM and which factors influence this process.


The authors present the French Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Head and Neck Surgery (SFORL) clinical practice guidelines concerning the role of otorhinolaryngologists in the management of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). This chapter is devoted to the follow-up protocol for children treated for OSAS.


Preservation of vestibular structures, particularly the posterior semicircular canal, is essential to ensure hearing preservation in addition to complete tumour resection during retrosigmoid surgical resection of a vestibular schwannoma. Drilling of the internal auditory canal (IAC) is a delicate step, during which these structures can be accidentally perforated. The orientation of the IAC results in the formation of poorly visible zones that can predispose to perforation of these structures when drilling is performed with a microscope. Hand-held endoscopy exposes all of the operative field, but immobilizes one of the surgeon’s hands, making this surgery even more delicate. Fixed endoscopy is a solution that gives the surgeon greater freedom of movement, while ensuring precise control of the surgical procedure. It allows identification and avoidance of vestibular structures, while allowing resection as close as possible to the tumour. The schwannoma can be entirely cleaved when the fundus of the IAC is correctly controlled, while sparing the facial and cochlear nerves.


Cochlear implants (CI) have enabled an increasing proportion of deaf children to develop oral communication. Despite the well-known benefits of bilateral implantation, many of these children and teenagers have only a unilateral implant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits of sequential bilateral CI and the influence of relevant factors on outcome.