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Journal: European annals of otorhinolaryngology, head and neck diseases


INTRODUCTION: Systemic and topical nasal decongestants are widely used in otorhinolaryngology and general practice for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and as an adjuvant in certain forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. These products, very effective to rapidly improve nasal congestion, are sometimes available over the counter and can be the subject of misuse, which is difficult to control. The Société Française d'ORL has recently issued guidelines concerning the use of these decongestants in the doctor’s office and the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review of the literature conducted by the task force studied in detail the concepts of “rebound congestion” and “rhinitis medicamentosa” often reported in a context of misuse, particularly of topical nasal decongestants. The clinical and histopathological consequences of prolonged and repeated use of nasal decongestants have been studied on animal models and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Discordant results have been obtained, as some authors reported a harmful effect of nasal decongestants on the nasal mucosa, while others did not identify any significant changes. No study has been able to distinguish between inflammatory lesions induced by chronic rhinosinusitis and lesions possibly related to the use of nasal decongestants. DISCUSSION: The task force explained the rebound congestion observed after stopping nasal decongestant treatment by return of the nasal congestion induced by rhinosinusitis and rejected the concept of rhinitis medicamentosa in the absence of scientific evidence from patients with rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSION: Nasal decongestants are recommended for the management of acute rhinosinusitis to reduce the consequences of often disabling nasal congestion. They are also recommended during rhinoscopic examination and for preparation of the nasal mucosa prior to endonasal surgery.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Topical, Mucus, Pseudoephedrine, Nasal congestion, Topical decongestant, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Decongestant


Only 10% of intramuscular hemangiomas (IMH) are located in the head and neck region. There are very few reports of masseteric location. The present study of a case of intra-masseteric cavernous hemangioma discusses clinical presentation, paraclinical diagnostic workup and treatment options.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Masseter muscle, Masseteric artery


Nasal irrigation plays a non-negligible role in the treatment of numerous sinonasal pathologies and postoperative care. There is, however, a wide variety of protocols. The present review of the evidence-based literature sought objective arguments for optimization and efficacy. It emerged that large-volume low-pressure nasal douche optimizes the distribution and cleansing power of the irrigation solution in the nasal cavity. Ionic composition and pH also influence mucociliary clearance and epithelium trophicity. Seawater is less rich in sodium ions and richer in bicarbonates, potassium, calcium and magnesium than is isotonic normal saline, while alkaline pH and elevated calcium concentration optimized ciliary motility in vitro. Bicarbonates reduce secretion viscosity. Potassium and magnesium promote healing and limit local inflammation. These results show that the efficacy of nasal irrigation is multifactorial. Large-volume low-pressure nasal irrigation using undiluted seawater seems, in the present state of knowledge, to be the most effective protocol.

Concepts: Water, Calcium, PH, Sodium, Potassium, Seawater, Electrolysis, Nasal irrigation


Botulinum toxin injection is widely used for the treatment of laryngeal movement disorders. Electromyography-guided percutaneous injection is the technique most commonly used to perform intralaryngeal botulinum toxin injection.

Concepts: Dystonia, The Technique, Botulinum toxin, Microbial toxins, Clostridium botulinum


The concept of chronic rhinosinusitis with or without polyps is founded on the structural and functional unicity of the pituitary mucosa and its united response to environmental aggression by allergens, viruses, bacteria, pollution, etc. The present review sets this concept against the evo-devo three-nose theory, in which nasal polyposis is distinguished as specific to the olfactory nose and in particular to the non-olfactory mucosa of the ethmoid, which is considered to be not a sinus but rather the skull-base bone harboring the olfactory mucosa. The evo-devo approach enables simple and precise positive diagnosis of nasal polyposis and its various clinical forms, improves differential diagnosis by distinguishing chronic diseases of the respiratory nose and those of the paranasal sinuses, hypothesizes an autoimmune origin specifically aimed at olfactory system auto-antigens, and supports the surgical concept of nasalization against that of functional sinus and ostiomeatal-complex surgery. The ventilation function of the sinuses seems minor compared to their production, storage and active release of nitric oxide (NO) serving to oxygenate arterial blood in the pulmonary alveoli. This respiratory function of the paranasal sinuses may indeed be their most important. NO trapped in the ethmoidal spaces also accounts for certain radiographic aspects associated with nasal polyposis.

Concepts: Asthma, Medical terms, Sinusitis, Pulmonary alveolus, Respiratory system, Mucus, Anosmia, Olfactory epithelium


Considerable animal research has focused on developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Several experimental models of AOM have thus been developed. A PubMed search of the English literature was conducted from 1975 to July 2016 using the search terms “animal model” and “otitis media” from which 91 published studies were included for analysis, yielding 123 animal models. The rat, mouse and chinchilla are the preferred animals for experimental AOM models with their individual advantages and disadvantages. The most common pathogens used to create AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. Streptococcus pneumoniae (types 3, 23 and 6A) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are best options for inoculation into rat and mouse models. Adding viral pathogens such as RSV and Influenza A virus, along with creating ET dysfunction, are useful adjuncts in animal models of AOM. Antibiotic prophylaxis may interfere with the inflammatory response without a significant reduction in animal mortality.

Concepts: Microbiology, Pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Model organism, Animal testing, Otitis media, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis


Functional failure of total ossicular replacement prostheses (TORP) is often due to secondary displacement, ranging from simple subluxation to prosthesis extrusion following recurrence of severe tympanic membrane retraction. Several surgical techniques have been proposed to stabilize a TORP, mostly using superimposed non-organic or resorbable heterologous materials. We describe a simple so-called “tumulus” surgical technique that limits prosthesis displacement and extrusion, regardless of the type of TORP, by using a few fragments of autologous cartilage that are always available and perfectly tolerated at no cost. Review of 31 cases treated by this technique did not reveal any cases of prosthesis displacement and only one case (3.2%) of prosthesis extrusion with audiometric results comparable to the best results reported in the literature.

Concepts: Amputation


Secondary tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) with voice prosthesis placement represents one of the possibility to restore vocal function after total laryngectomy. However, some patients have comorbidities that contraindicate general anesthesia. In our department, an in-clinic TEP procedure for retrograde voice prosthesis placement was developed. It allows the immediate placement of the prosthesis and the avoidance of the use of dilators. We described our technique with advantages and pitfalls. The Provox Vega Puncture Set was used. Our technique for in-clinic secondary TEP without general anesthesia or target controlled infusion was a safe and effective procedure. It allows the use of the traditional TEP set, with possibility of voice prosthesis placement after previous TEP closure.

Concepts: Group, Human voice, C


Free fibula transplant is routinely used for mandibular reconstruction in head and neck cancer. Dental rehabilitation, the objective of mandibular reconstruction, requires the use of dental implants as supports for fixed or removable dentures. Positioning of fibular bone grafts and implants determines implant osseointegration and the possibilities of dental rehabilitation. Prefabrication of a fibula free flap with dental implants prior to harvesting as a free flap can promote implant osseointegration. The position of the implants must then be precisely planned. Virtual surgery and computer-assisted design and prefabrication techniques are used to plan the reconstruction and then reproduce this planning by means of tailored fibula and mandible cutting guides, thereby ensuring correct positioning of fibular bone fragments and implants. The prefabricated fibula free flap technique requires two surgical procedures (prefabrication and flap transfer) and precise preoperative planning. Prefabricated fibula free flap with dental implants, by improving the quality of osseointegration of the implants before flap transfer, extends the possibilities of prosthetic rehabilitation in complex secondary mandibular reconstructions.

Concepts: Surgery, Implants, Prosthetics, Dental implant, Reconstruction era of the United States, Reconstruction, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Osseointegration


The extent of bone exposure is one of the major factors contributing to failure of endoscopic frontal sinusotomy procedures. Double flaps providing cover of exposed bone have already been described for Draf III procedures in a cadavre study using posterior and lateral pedicled nasoseptal flaps. As these flaps overlap on the septal side, they cannot be raised from the same nasal cavity in a Draf IIb procedure. We describe a new technique using 2 local mucoperiosteal flaps raised from the same side to entirely cover the bone margins exposed by Draf IIb frontal sinusotomy.

Concepts: Anatomy, Major, Nasal cavity, Cavity wall insulation