SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: European annals of otorhinolaryngology, head and neck diseases

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INTRODUCTION: Systemic and topical nasal decongestants are widely used in otorhinolaryngology and general practice for the management of acute rhinosinusitis and as an adjuvant in certain forms of chronic rhinosinusitis. These products, very effective to rapidly improve nasal congestion, are sometimes available over the counter and can be the subject of misuse, which is difficult to control. The Société Française d'ORL has recently issued guidelines concerning the use of these decongestants in the doctor’s office and the operating room. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The review of the literature conducted by the task force studied in detail the concepts of “rebound congestion” and “rhinitis medicamentosa” often reported in a context of misuse, particularly of topical nasal decongestants. The clinical and histopathological consequences of prolonged and repeated use of nasal decongestants have been studied on animal models and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Discordant results have been obtained, as some authors reported a harmful effect of nasal decongestants on the nasal mucosa, while others did not identify any significant changes. No study has been able to distinguish between inflammatory lesions induced by chronic rhinosinusitis and lesions possibly related to the use of nasal decongestants. DISCUSSION: The task force explained the rebound congestion observed after stopping nasal decongestant treatment by return of the nasal congestion induced by rhinosinusitis and rejected the concept of rhinitis medicamentosa in the absence of scientific evidence from patients with rhinosinusitis. CONCLUSION: Nasal decongestants are recommended for the management of acute rhinosinusitis to reduce the consequences of often disabling nasal congestion. They are also recommended during rhinoscopic examination and for preparation of the nasal mucosa prior to endonasal surgery.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Topical, Mucus, Pseudoephedrine, Nasal congestion, Topical decongestant, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Decongestant

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Only 10% of intramuscular hemangiomas (IMH) are located in the head and neck region. There are very few reports of masseteric location. The present study of a case of intra-masseteric cavernous hemangioma discusses clinical presentation, paraclinical diagnostic workup and treatment options.

Concepts: Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Masseter muscle, Masseteric artery

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Nasal irrigation plays a non-negligible role in the treatment of numerous sinonasal pathologies and postoperative care. There is, however, a wide variety of protocols. The present review of the evidence-based literature sought objective arguments for optimization and efficacy. It emerged that large-volume low-pressure nasal douche optimizes the distribution and cleansing power of the irrigation solution in the nasal cavity. Ionic composition and pH also influence mucociliary clearance and epithelium trophicity. Seawater is less rich in sodium ions and richer in bicarbonates, potassium, calcium and magnesium than is isotonic normal saline, while alkaline pH and elevated calcium concentration optimized ciliary motility in vitro. Bicarbonates reduce secretion viscosity. Potassium and magnesium promote healing and limit local inflammation. These results show that the efficacy of nasal irrigation is multifactorial. Large-volume low-pressure nasal irrigation using undiluted seawater seems, in the present state of knowledge, to be the most effective protocol.

Concepts: Water, Calcium, PH, Sodium, Potassium, Seawater, Electrolysis, Nasal irrigation

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The main advantage of endoscopic laser surgery for laryngeal cancer is to allow tumour resection, while limiting functional sequelae, thereby improving the postoperative course. In this type of surgery, the epiglottis is often partially resected, leaving a raw zone without any reconstruction. The surgical technique described here involves endoscopic reconstruction of the epiglottis after partial resection. The sectioned edge of the epiglottis is sutured to the base of the tongue to create a neoepiglottis and to reconstruct the vallecula, thus resembling preoperative anatomy, allowing improvement of postoperative swallowing.

Concepts: Medicine, Surgery, Laser, Anesthesia, Larynx, Resection, Surgical oncology, Laser surgery

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To present the international consensus for recommendations for Ménière’s disease (MD) treatment.

Concepts: Steve Davis

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To report a case of marginal zone MALT lymphoma of the temporal dura mater, initially mistaken for temporal meningioma.

Concepts: Types of cancer, Lymphoma, Meninges, Middle meningeal artery, Dura mater

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There is at present no consensus on the treatment of obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction. In case of failure of well-conducted drug and pressure therapy, some authors recommend balloon dilation; the present study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of Eustachian tube balloon dilation.

Concepts: Eustachian tube, Patulous Eustachian tube

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Subjective tinnitus is a symptom in many ENT pathologies, for which there is no curative treatment. It may be poorly tolerated by some patients, who develop attention or sleep disorder or even major anxiety and depression, severely impairing quality of life. Pathophysiological models of the genesis and maintenance of tinnitus symptomatology highlight maladaptive cerebral plasticity induced by peripheral hearing loss. Although not fully elucidated, these changes in neuronal activity are the target of various attempts at neuromodulation, particularly using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which has been the focus of various clinical studies and meta-analyses. A recent consensus statement (Lefaucheur, 2014) reported level-C evidence (possible efficacy) for rTMS using low frequency (1Hz) tonic stimulation targeting the left cerebral cortex. However, many questions remain concerning the use of this technique in everyday practice. The present article reports a recent literature review using the search-terms “tinnitus” and “rTMS” in the PubMed and Cochrane databases for April 2014 to December 2016.

Concepts: Cognitive neuroscience, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Tinnitus

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The impact of hearing loss and of auditory rehabilitation (hearing aid, cochlear implant) on quality of life is a crucial issue. Commonly used questionnaires to assess quality of life in these patients (Nijmegen, APHAB, GBI) are time-consuming, difficult for patients to fill out, and show poor sensitivity to small improvements or deterioration. The objective of the present study was to validate a dedicated quality of life scale for hearing-impaired adults with or without auditory rehabilitation.

Concepts: Evaluation, Evaluation methods, Quality, Cochlea, Hearing impairment, Cochlear implant, Otology, Models of deafness