SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: EuroIntervention : journal of EuroPCR in collaboration with the Working Group on Interventional Cardiology of the European Society of Cardiology

150

We sought to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of hybrid transapical closure of paravalvar mitral leaks using a new Occlutech PLD occluder in patients with heart failure and/or haemolytic anaemia.

Concepts: Hemoglobin, Red blood cell, Anemia, Hemolytic anemia, Hemolysis, Hematology

150

The introduction of the so-called newer-generation transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of complications associated with the procedure. However, preliminary data suggest that conduction abnormalities (particularly new-onset atrioventricular block and left bundle branch block) remain a frequent complication post TAVI. Although inconsistencies across studies are apparent, new-onset conduction abnormalities post TAVI may be associated with higher incidences of mortality, sudden cardiac death and left ventricular dysfunction. Strategies intended both to reduce the risk and to improve the management of such complications are clearly warranted. In fact, the indication and timing of permanent pacemaker implantation are frequently individualised according to centre and/or operator preference. Currently, studies assessing the impact of these complications and the optimal indications for permanent cardiac pacing are underway. In this article, we review the data available on the incidence and impact of conduction disturbances following TAVI, and propose a strategy for the management of such complications.

Concepts: Cardiology, Heart, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac electrophysiology, Left ventricle, Cardiac pacemaker, Sinoatrial node, Transcutaneous pacing

147

Meticulous lesion preparation prior to bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) implantation has been strongly recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate if there was a benefit associated with scoring balloon use in lesion preparation in comparison to conventional balloons prior to implantation of a BVS.

Concepts: Balloon

144

In the HORIZONS-AMI trial, bivalirudin compared to unfractionated heparin (UFH) plus a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) improved net clinical outcomes in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the cost of an increased rate of acute stent thrombosis. We sought to examine whether these effects are dependent on time to treatment.

Concepts: Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Low molecular weight heparin, Eptifibatide

143

We assessed the agreement between IVUS-NIRS and OCT to assess lipid plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes or stable angina. In addition, the impact of both macrophages and calcifications was investigated.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris

37

We sought to investigate the impact of the self-apposing, sirolimus-eluting STENTYS stent on midterm and long-term stent apposition and strut coverage compared with a zotarolimus-eluting balloon-expandable stent in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI).

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Heart failure, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Atheroma, Acute coronary syndrome, Drug-eluting stent

29

We aimed to assess whether the RenalGuard™ System is effective in preventing acute kidney injury (AKI) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Concepts: Prevention

28

Aims: To investigate the incidence of cardiac events in octogenarians who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting, as well as to evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents (DES) in this population. Methods and results: The study included 6,129 consecutive patients who underwent PCI with stenting from 2000 to 2005 in our centre, of whom 291 (4.7%) were octogenarians. After adjusting for confounders, age ≥80 years appeared a significant predictor of high mortality at 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.23-3.01), and four years (aHR 2.25, 95% CI 1.77-2.85). No differences were seen with respect to incident myocardial infarction (MI), but target lesion (63.2 vs. 32.6 per 1,000 person-years at one year and 27.9 vs. 16.6 per 1,000 person-years at four years) and vessel (83.1 vs. 52.9 per 1,000 person-years at one year and 37.7 vs. 25.0 per 1,000 person-years at four years) revascularisation rates were lower in octogenarians. When comparing DES with bare metal stents (BMS) in octogenarians, mortality and MI rates were comparable, but there was a significantly lower incidence of target lesion revascularisation at one- (9.5 vs. 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, aHR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.57) and four-year (3.4 vs. 0.7 per 1,000 person-years, aHR 0.16, 95% CI 0.04-0.59) follow-up in patients who received a DES. Conclusions: Octogenarians undergoing PCI with stenting have an increased mortality risk, whereas the rates of repeat revascularisation in octogenarians are lower. This study suggests that the benefit of DES in reducing revascularisation rates is extended to elderly patients.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Medical statistics, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Stent, Drug-eluting stent, Bare-metal stent

28

Aims: Angiographic guidance for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has substantial limitations. The superior spatial resolution of optical coherence tomography (OCT) could translate into meaningful clinical benefits. We aimed to compare angiographic guidance alone versus angiographic plus OCT guidance for PCI. Methods and results: Patients undergoing PCI with angiographic plus OCT guidance (OCT group) were compared with matched patients undergoing PCI with angiographic only guidance (Angio group) within 30 days. The primary endpoint was the one-year rate of cardiac death or myocardial infarction (MI). A total of 670 patients were included, 335 in the OCT group and 335 in the Angio group. OCT disclosed adverse features requiring further interventions in 34.7%. Unadjusted analyses showed that the OCT group had a significantly lower one-year risk of cardiac death (1.2% vs. 4.5%, p=0.010), cardiac death or MI (6.6% vs. 13.0%, p=0.006), and the composite of cardiac death, MI, or repeat revascularisation (9.6% vs. 14.8%, p=0.044). Angiographic plus OCT guidance was associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiac death or MI even at extensive multivariable analysis adjusting for baseline and procedural differences between the groups (OR=0.49 [0.25-0.96], p=0.037) and at propensity-score adjusted analyses. Conclusions: This observational study, the first ever formally to appraise OCT guidance for PCI decision-making, suggests that the use of OCT can improve clinical outcomes of patients undergoing PCI.

Concepts: Optics, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Cardiology, Atheroma, Medical imaging, Cardiac arrest, Angiography

25

Aims: To demonstrate the feasibility of the Leaflex™ Catheter System, a novel percutaneous device for fracturing valve calcification using mechanical impact in order to regain leaflet mobility. Methods and results: Radiographic analysis of calcium patterns in 90 ex vivo human aortic valve leaflets demonstrated that 82% of leaflets had a typical “bridge” or “half-bridge” pattern, which formed the basis for the catheter design. The therapeutic effect was quantified in 13 leaflets showing a reduction of 49±16% in leaflet resistance to folding after treatment. A pulsatile flow simulator was then used with 11 ex vivo valves demonstrating an increase in aortic valve area of 35±12%. Using gross pathology and histology on fresh calcified leaflets, we then verified that mechanical impacts do not entail excessive risk of embolisation. In vivo safety and usability were then confirmed in the ovine model. Conclusions: We demonstrated preclinically that it is feasible to improve valve function using the Leaflex™ technology. Once demonstrated clinically, such an approach may have an important role as preparation for or bridging to TAVI, as destination treatment for patients where TAVI is clinically or economically questionable and, in the future, maybe even as a means to slow disease progression in asymptomatic patients.

Concepts: In vivo, Demonstration, Aortic valve, Valvular heart disease, Calcification, Aortic valve stenosis, Leaflet, Gross examination