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Journal: Epidemiology and health

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The 2017 guideline for the prevention of travelers' diarrhea (TD) by International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM) suggested that ‘there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of commercially available prebiotics or probiotics to prevent or treat TD’. But, a meta-analysis published in 2007 reported significant efficacy of probiotics on TD [summary RR (sRR) =0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.91). The aim was to synthesize efficacy of probiotics on TD by updating the meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized human trials.

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Recent studies have shown that the rate of needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) are unacceptably high in Iranian hospitals. The aim of the present study was to use a systematic approach for predicting and reducing these injuries.

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Network Scale Up (NSU) is an indirect size estimation method, where participants are questioned on sensitive behaviors of their social network members. Therefore the visibility of the behavior affects the replies and estimates. Many attempts to estimate the visibility are made. The aims of this manuscript are to review main methods to address the visibility, and to provide a summary of reported Visibility Factor (VF) across populations.

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We investigated whether androgen deprivation therapy use in prostate cancer patients is associated with decreased risks for second primary lung cancer in the US veterans.

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Open and supportive communication between parents and children is known to reduce adolescents' delinquent behavior. Recently, risk of Internet gaming addiction is increasing in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mediating effects of parent - child communication methods on the relationship between adolescent aggressiveness and risk of Internet gaming addiction.

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Understanding of the geographic variation of HIV/AIDS mortality risk and HIV infection could help identify high burden areas. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of predictors on the time of HIV diagnosis to death whereas accounting the spatial correlations across the counties and to assess patterns of spatial inequalities in the risk of HIV/AIDS death in Hamadan province, Iran.

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This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of Iranian women on HIV/AIDS and their accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV to identify correlated factors with their knowledge and attitude.

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The TB incidence rate and mortality rate in the Republic of Korea are 77 and 5.2 per 100,000 people respectively (2016), which are the highest among the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Recently, the Republic of Korea’s TB incidence decreased dramatically among people in their teens and twenties. This is largely attributed to the contact investigation efforts in targeting schools over the past few years. However, the TB incidence in the elderly still remains high and is even increasing compared to the past 10 years. Older persons account for 42% of all TB cases and 82% of deaths due to TB. On the other hand, the Republic of Korea’s TB treatment success rate has gradually increased due to various programs, such as Control of noncompliance, insurance coverage for TB diagnosis and treatment, and TB public-private mix models. This study suggests that policy makers should focus their efforts on the policies with priorities to achieve a significant reduction in TB incidence based on the 2nd National Strategic Plan for Tuberculosis Control (2018-2022).

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The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the first-grade high school students in Korea was 2.1%, which was the lowest level at congregated settings in 2017. For LTBI cases refusing anti-TB medication or having poor compliance, additional support should be considered. Eight systematic reviews concluded that vitamin D (VD) deficiency is a risk factor for TB. While three of four Korean adolescents were VD deficiency, VD supplementation could be a practical remedy to protect LTBI students of refusing anti-TB medication or having poor compliance.

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This study aim to identify the estimated proportion for influenza vaccination and related factors depending on chronic disease in Korean adults aged 50 and older.