SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Environmental health and preventive medicine

138

Most studies have investigated the association between parental socioeconomic factors and dental caries in children based on educational and income levels; studies focusing on parental occupation, however, have been relatively limited. This cross-sectional study examined the associations between parental occupations and levels of education and household income and the prevalence of dental caries in Japanese children aged 3 years.

Concepts: Education, Lactic acid, The Association, Dental caries, Household income in the United States

27

We previously developed a model for projection of heat-related mortality attributable to climate change. The objective of this paper is to improve the fit and precision of and examine the robustness of the model.

Concepts: Das Model, Actuarial science

26

Devastating disasters may increase suicide rates due to mental distress. Previous domestic studies have reported decreased suicide rates among men following disasters. Few reports are available regarding factors associated with disasters, making it difficult to discuss how these events affect suicide rates. This study aimed to observe changes in suicide rates in disaster-stricken and neighboring areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake, and examine associations between suicide rates and economic factors.

Concepts: Affect, Cultural studies, Economics, Suicide, Report, Great Hanshin earthquake

26

During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45¬†% of the country’s paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that combinations of factors and/or their interactions are likely to precipitate CKD-mfo, which kills more than 5,000 people annually in Sri Lanka; most victims are middle-aged male farmers. Much anecdotal evidence from this region suggests that consumption of contaminated water is the most likely source of this deadly disease. Although the aetiology is unknown, prevention of this “environmentally acquired” disease seems relatively straightforward. Solutions include (a) preventing environmental pollution, (b) stopping the irresponsible use and decreasing the usage of agrochemicals, and encouraging the use of environmentally friendly agricultural methods, © taking proper precautions when using agrochemicals and safe disposal of their containers, (d) changing the risky behaviour of farmers and educating them to preserve the environment, and (e) providing clean potable water to all affected regions. Implementing a well-coordinated, in-depth, region-wide, broad-based research study together with a long-term effective surveillance programme across the country is essential to curbing this disease. Unless firm actions are taken promptly, more than three million healthy people in the country, live in agricultural regions, are at risk for contracting CKD-mfo and succumb to premature deaths, which are preventable.

Concepts: Central Province, Sri Lanka, Water, Northern Province, Sri Lanka, Incidence, Kidney, Prevalence, Sri Lanka, Chronic kidney disease

25

The aim of this study was to investigate the linkage among climate parameters, total ambulance transports and the number of deaths in Asahikawa City in northern Japan.

Concepts: Japan, Death

0

The objectives of this study are to investigate the incidence and reporting behavior of sharp injuries among healthcare workers (HCWs) and identify the risk factors associated with these injuries.

Concepts: Public health, Medicine, Health, Health insurance, Epidemiology, Healthcare, Health care provider, Health care

0

The effect of the redox state of human serum albumin (HSA) on the antioxidant properties of the entire body has been a focus of recent research. The usefulness of HSA redox state as a biomarker for reducing oxidative stress has been investigated in clinical settings; however, evidence for its significance as a health index in non-clinical settings is yet to be established. This study aimed to examine the associations between HSA redox state and the atherosclerotic indices of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation in a rural Japanese population.

Concepts: Oxidizing agent, Antioxidant, Radical, Redox, Vitamin C

0

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may occur during any human activity, including driving. The objectives of this study were to report the frequency of ACS occurring while driving, clarify patient characteristics, and analyze the behavioral patterns of drivers who sustained ACS.

Concepts: Wavelength, Asperger syndrome, Syndromes, Syndrome, Human behavior, Angina pectoris, Acute coronary syndrome

0

Although ethanol is known to inhibit platelet aggregation, the effects of another variant of alcohol, methanol, have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether methanol and its metabolite, formic acid, affect Ca2+ entry into and subsequent aggregation of platelets in vitro.

Concepts: Carbon monoxide, Formaldehyde, Alcohol, Ethanol, Solvent, Acetic acid, Oxygen, Methanol

0

Chronic noise exposure has been associated with tau hyperphosphorylation and Alzheimer’s disease (AD)-like pathological changes, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we explored the effects of long-term noise exposure on the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system in the hippocampus and its role in noise-induced tau phosphorylation.

Concepts: Proteopathy, Memory, Alzheimer's disease, Semantic memory, Tau protein