SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Endocrine connections

7

Islet transplantation is currently the only minimally-invasive therapy available for patients with type 1 diabetes that can lead to insulin-independence, however it is limited to only a small number of patients. Although clinical procedures have improved in the isolation and culture of islets, a large number of islets are still lost in the pre-transplant period, limiting the success of this treatment. Moreover, current practice includes islets being prepared at specialised centers, which are sometimes remote to the transplant location. Thus, a critical point of intervention to maintain the quality and quantity of isolated islets is during transportation between isolation centers and the transplanting hospitals, during which 20-40% of functional islets can be lost. The current study investigated the use of an oxygen-permeable PDMS microwell device for long distance transportation of isolated islets. We demonstrate that the microwell device protected islets from aggregation during transport, maintaining viability and average islet size during shipping.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes, Transport, Large numbers, Islet

7

Nutritional rickets is a growing global public health concern despite existing prevention programs and health policies. We aimed to compare infant and childhood vitamin D supplementation policies, implementation strategies and practices across Europe and explore factors influencing adherence.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Public health, Health, Nutrition, Milk, Vitamin, Malnutrition

7

Previous studies provide evidence that HbA1c and FPG should not be considered interchangeable alternatives in the diagnosis of the same type 2 diabetes, but as indicators of its different pathogenetic subtypes. This study was conducted to determine whether a particularly high amount of glucose in either HbA1c form or in fasting plasma (FPG) would be found in diabetic patients genetically predisposed for either intensive cognitive or intensive muscle metabolic activity, respectively.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Glucose, Diabetes, Blood sugar, Glycogen

6

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves peak power output (PPO) in sedentary aging men but has not been examined in masters endurance athletes. Therefore, we investigated whether a six-week program of low-volume HIIT would (i) improve PPO in masters athletes and (ii) whether any change in PPO would be associated with steroid hormone perturbations. Seventeen male masters athletes (60 ± 5 years) completed the intervention, which comprised nine HIIT sessions over six weeks. HIIT sessions involved six 30-s sprints at 40% PPO, interspersed with 3 min active recovery. Absolute PPO (799 ± 205 W and 865 ± 211 W) and relative PPO (10.2 ± 2.0 W/kg and 11.0 ± 2.2 W/kg) increased from pre- to post-HIIT respectively (P < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.32-0.38). No significant change was observed for total testosterone (15.2 ± 4.2 nmol/L to 16.4 ± 3.3 nmol/L (P = 0.061, Cohen's d = 0.32)), while a small increase in free testosterone occurred following HIIT (7.0 ± 1.2 ng/dL to 7.5 ± 1.1 ng/dL pre- to post-HIIT (P = 0.050, Cohen's d = 0.40)). Six weeks' HIIT improves PPO in masters athletes and increases free testosterone. Taken together, these data indicate there is a place for carefully timed HIIT epochs in regimes of masters athletes.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Hormone, Estrogen, Testosterone, Steroid, UCI race classifications, High-intensity interval training, Interval training

6

Several influences modulate biochemical responses to weight-adjusted levothyroxine (L-T4) replacement dose. We conducted a secondary analysis of the relationship of L-T4 dose to TSH and FT3, using a prospective observational study examining the interacting equilibria between thyroid parameters.

Concepts: Scientific method, Observational study, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid hormone, Iodinated tyrosine derivatives

6

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, however a large variety of association and intervention studies, as well as genetic manipulations in rodents have reported contrasting results. Indeed, even 39 years after the first publication describing a relationship between insulin resistance and diminished mitochondrial function, it is still unclear if a direct relationship exists, and more importantly if changes in mitochondrial capacity are a cause or consequence of insulin resistance. This review will take a journey through the past and summarize the debate about the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and its possible role in causing decreased insulin action in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Evidence will be presented from studies in various human populations, as well as rodents with genetic manipulations of pathways known to affect mitochondrial function and insulin action. Finally, we will discuss if mitochondria are a potential target for the treatment of insulin resistance.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Mitochondrion, Obesity, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome, 2006 albums

5

This competency framework was developed by a working group of endocrine specialist nurses with the support of the Society for Endocrinology to enhance the clinical care that adults with an endocrine disorder receive. Nurses should be able to demonstrate that they are functioning at an optimal level in order for patients to receive appropriate care. By formulating a competency framework from which an adult endocrine nurse specialist can work, it is envisaged that their development as professional practitioners can be enhanced. This is the second edition of the Competency Framework for Adult Endocrine Nursing. It introduces four new competencies on benign adrenal tumours, hypo- and hyperparathyroidism, osteoporosis and polycystic ovary syndrome. The authors and the Society for Endocrinology welcome constructive feedback on the document, both nationally and internationally, in anticipation that further developments and ideas can be incorporated into future versions.

Concepts: Endocrinology, Syndromes, Nursing, Nurse, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Endocrine system, Nurses, Florence Nightingale

3

Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial stem cell niche involves many signaling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ stem cell niche in human and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. We also discuss the experimental models that may be utilized to manipulate the somatic environment and report the results of studies that investigate the potential role of somatic cells in protection of the germ cells in the testis from cancer treatment.

Concepts: Gene, Gene expression, Developmental biology, Cell division, Cellular differentiation, Sertoli cell, Germ cells, Puberty

3

Prednisolone is used as glucocorticoid replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency (AI). Recent data indicate that its use in AI is associated with low bone mineral density. Data on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with AI treated with prednisolone are scarce, despite this condition being the predominant cause of excess mortality. We aimed to address this question using real-world data from the European Adrenal Insufficiency Registry (EU-AIR).

Concepts: Epidemiology, Aldosterone, Corticosteroid, Glucocorticoid, Cortisol, Cushing's syndrome, Adrenal cortex, Adrenal insufficiency

3

Many biomarkers are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in epidemiological observations. The aim of this study was to identify and summarize current evidence for causal effects of biomarkers on T2D.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus