SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Ecancermedicalscience

189

This study is aimed at determining the efficacy of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

Concepts: Chemotherapy, Volatile, Hyperemesis gravidarum, Herbs, Mentha, Essential oils, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica

105

Cancer and transplant patients with COVID-19 have a higher risk of developing severe and even fatal respiratory diseases, especially as they may be treated with immune-suppressive or immune-stimulating drugs. This review focuses on the effects of these drugs on host immunity against COVID-19.

24

Given the current SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, the availability of reliable information for clinicians and patients is paramount. There have been a number of reports stating that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids may exacerbate symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, this review aimed to collate information available in published articles to identify any evidence behind these claims with the aim of advising clinicians on how best to treat patients. This review found no published evidence for or against the use of NSAIDs in COVID-19 patients. Meanwhile, there appeared to be some evidence that corticosteroids may be beneficial if utilised in the early acute phase of infection, however, conflicting evidence from the World Health Organisation surrounding corticosteroid use in certain viral infections means this evidence is not conclusive. Given the current availability of literature, caution should be exercised until further evidence emerges surrounding the use of NSAIDs and corticosteroids in COVID-19 patients.

14

Implementation of therapeutic cancer prevention strategies has enormous potential for reducing cancer incidence and related mortality. Trials of drugs including tamoxifen and aspirin have led the way in demonstrating proof-of-principle that prevention of breast and colorectal cancer is feasible. Many other compounds ranging from drugs in widespread use for various indications, including metformin, bisphosphonates, and vitamin D, to dietary agents such as the phytochemicals resveratrol and curcumin, show preventive activity against several cancers in preclinical models. Notwithstanding the wealth of opportunities, major challenges have hindered the development process and only a handful of therapies are currently approved for cancer risk reduction. One of the major obstacles to successful clinical translation of promising preventive agents is a lack of pharmacodynamic biomarkers to provide an early read out of biological activity in humans and for optimising doses to take into large scale randomised clinical trials. A further confounding factor is a lack of consideration of clinical pharmacokinetics in the design of preclinical experiments, meaning results are frequently reported from studies that use irrelevant or unachievable concentrations. This article focuses on recent findings from investigations with dietary-derived agents to illustrate how a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of action, using models that mimic the clinical scenario, together with the development of compound-specific accompanying pharmacodynamic biomarkers could accelerate the developmental pipeline for preventive agents and maximise the chances of success in future clinical trials. Moreover, the concept of a bell-shaped dose-response curve for therapeutic cancer prevention is discussed, along with the need to rethink the traditional ‘more is better’ approach for dose selection.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Epidemiology, Cancer, Breast cancer, The Canon of Medicine, Colorectal cancer, Dose-response relationship, Pharmacodynamics

14

Clarithromycin (CAM) is a well-known macrolide antibiotic available as a generic drug. CAM is traditionally used for many types of bacterial infections, treatment of Lyme disease and eradication of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori. Extensive preclinical and clinical data demonstrate a potential role for CAM to treat various tumours in combination with conventional treatment. The mechanisms of action underlying the anti-tumour activity of CAM are multiple and include prolonged reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, autophagy inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis. Here, we present an overview of the current preclinical (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical evidence supporting the role of CAM in cancer. Overall these findings justify further research with CAM in many tumour types, with multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), and lung cancer having the highest level of evidence. Finally, a series of proposals are being made to further investigate the use of CAM in clinical trials which offer the greatest prospect of clinical benefit to patients.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Chemotherapy, Helicobacter pylori, Clarithromycin, Malaise

9

In this study, we investigated the effects of the natural antioxidant curcumin on the HPV16-positive oral carcinoma cell line 93VU147T and demonstrated that curcumin is not only a potent inhibitor for the activity of host nuclear transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kB but it also selectively suppresses transcription of the HPV16/E6 oncogene during the carcinogenic process in oral cancer cells. This study suggests a therapeutic potential of curcumin for high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected oral cancers.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene expression, Cancer, Human papillomavirus, Lung cancer, Transcription factor, Leukemia

8

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide in general and in the Middle East and the North African region (MENA region) in particular. Management of breast cancer in the MENA region faces a lot of challenges, which include younger age at presentation, aggressive behaviour, lack of national breast screening programmes and lack of reliable data registries as well as socioeconomic factors. These factors make applying the international guidelines for breast cancer management very challenging. The aim of this project is to explore the need for a regional breast cancer guideline as well as to screen the clinical practice of breast cancer management in the MENA region.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, North Africa, Middle East, Mammography, Egypt, Jordan, MENA

5

Although patients with incurable disease and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS ≥ 2) are underrepresented in clinical trials, they are frequently offered palliative chemotherapy (pCT) in daily clinical practice in order to improve symptoms and quality of life. In this case-control retrospective analysis, our goal was to identify factors associated with poorer survival and lack of benefit of pCT in this population.

5

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer globally, and studies provide contradictory results about the possible effects of vitamin supplementation to reduce cancer risk. Our aim was to conduct a review to better investigate whether vitamin supplements given orally modify breast cancer risk.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Dietary supplement, Pleural effusion

4

Across much of the world, cancer care has been sidelined to a variable degree by the global effort against the coronavirus pandemic. This paper discusses the impact of coronavirus infection on cancer diagnosis and treatment in two leading cancer centres in Pakistan. It also describes the effect that preparations for the expected surge in cases in Pakistan over the next few weeks have had on cancer care. There is an urgent need to evaluate the effect of delays in diagnosis and treatment on cancer stage and treatment, and to decide how to minimise these during likely future cycles of lockdown over the coming months and years.