SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: EBioMedicine

551

We examined the introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in the early 1980s.

Concepts: Vaccine, Poliomyelitis, Polio vaccine, Experiment, Introduction, Poliomyelitis eradication, OPV AIDS hypothesis

405

There is growing concern around the effects of concussion and sub-concussive impacts in sport. Routine game-play in soccer involves intentional and repeated head impacts through ball heading. Although heading is frequently cited as a risk to brain health, little data exist regarding the consequences of this activity. This study aims to assess the immediate outcomes of routine football heading using direct and sensitive measures of brain function.

Concepts: Thought, Association football, Football, Head

373

Public trust in immunization is an increasingly important global health issue. Losses in confidence in vaccines and immunization programmes can lead to vaccine reluctance and refusal, risking disease outbreaks and challenging immunization goals in high- and low-income settings. National and international immunization stakeholders have called for better monitoring of vaccine confidence to identify emerging concerns before they evolve into vaccine confidence crises.

Concepts: Immune system, Public health, Vaccine, Vaccination, Tuberculosis, Mercury, State

221

Senescence is a tumor suppressor mechanism activated in stressed cells to prevent replication of damaged DNA. Senescent cells have been demonstrated to play a causal role in driving aging and age-related diseases using genetic and pharmacologic approaches. We previously demonstrated that the combination of dasatinib and the flavonoid quercetin is a potent senolytic improving numerous age-related conditions including frailty, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to identify flavonoids with more potent senolytic activity.

198

Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E) fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl). The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA). The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%). No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Protein, Vaccine, Vaccination, Immunology, Virology, Smallpox

178

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is one of the most common medications used for management of pain in the world. There is lack of consensus about the mechanism of action, and concern about the possibility of adverse effects on reproductive health.

Concepts: Health, Influenza, Cytochrome P450, Paracetamol, Adverse drug reaction, World, Adverse effect

142

The gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity, but direct evidence of effects of its modulation on body fat mass is still scarce. We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalisssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters.

Concepts: Cancer, Gut flora, Nutrition, Obesity, Overweight, Adipose tissue, Dieting, Prebiotic

139

Pathological evaluation of tumor tissue is pivotal for diagnosis in cancer patients and automated image analysis approaches have great potential to increase precision of diagnosis and help reduce human error. In this study, we utilize several computational methods based on convolutional neural networks (CNN) and build a stand-alone pipeline to effectively classify different histopathology images across different types of cancer. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of our pipeline to discriminate between two subtypes of lung cancer, four biomarkers of bladder cancer, and five biomarkers of breast cancer. In addition, we apply our pipeline to discriminate among four immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining scores of bladder and breast cancers. Our classification pipeline includes a basic CNN architecture, Google’s Inceptions with three training strategies, and an ensemble of two state-of-the-art algorithms, Inception and ResNet. Training strategies include training the last layer of Google’s Inceptions, training the network from scratch, and fine-tunning the parameters for our data using two pre-trained version of Google’s Inception architectures, Inception-V1 and Inception-V3. We demonstrate the power of deep learning approaches for identifying cancer subtypes, and the robustness of Google’s Inceptions even in presence of extensive tumor heterogeneity. On average, our pipeline achieved accuracies of 100%, 92%, 95%, and 69% for discrimination of various cancer tissues., subtypes, biomarkers, and scores, respectively. Our pipeline and related documentation is freely available at https://github.com/ih-_lab/CNN_Smoothie.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Pathology, Histology, Pleural effusion

133

Type I IFN-based therapies against solid malignancies have yielded only limited success. How IFN affects tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) compartment to impact the therapeutic outcomes are not well understood.

131

Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) plays a pivotal role in fibrogenesis, while the complex downstream mediators of TGF-β1 in such process are largely unknown.