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Journal: Early intervention in psychiatry

167

Deficient vitamin D levels are very common among Americans of all ages and ethnicities, but little is known about its prevalence or associated problems among those with schizophrenia.

28

AIM: There is a wealth of evidence suggesting that patients with schizophrenia tend to respond to life stressors using less effective coping skills, which are in turn related to poor outcome. However, the contribution of coping strategies to outcome in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis has not been investigated. METHODS: This longitudinal study followed CHR youth over a 12-month period, using the Brief COPE questionnaire. CHR subjects (n = 88) were compared at baseline with a healthy control sample (n = 53), and then mixed models were used to explore the relationship of coping strategies to clinical and psychosocial outcomes in CHR subjects over time (n = 102). RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in comparison with healthy controls, CHR youth reported using more maladaptive coping strategies (P < 0.001) and fewer adaptive coping strategies (P < 0.01). Longitudinal analyses within the CHR group showed significant decreases in maladaptive coping and symptom severity over time, with corresponding improvements in social and role functioning. Adaptive coping was associated with better concurrent social functioning and less severe symptomatology (both P < 0.001). Over time, more maladaptive coping was associated with more severe positive and negative symptoms (both P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Youth at risk for psychosis report using fewer adaptive and more maladaptive coping strategies relative to healthy controls. Over 1-year follow-up, more adaptive coping styles are associated with less severe clinical symptomatology and better social functioning. These findings suggest that teaching adaptive coping styles may be an important target for intervention in youth at high risk for psychosis.

Concepts: Coping skill, Outcome, Longitudinal study, Adaptive Behavior, Cross-sectional study, Cohort study, Sociology, Epidemiology

25

The purpose of this article was to review existing screening instruments that could be used to identify individuals who may be at increased risk for psychosis and to determine the suitability of these instruments.

12

Exercise can improve psychiatric symptoms, neurocognitive functioning and physical health in schizophrenia. However, the effects in early psychosis have not been explored. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of an exercise intervention for early psychosis and to determine if it was associated with changes in physical and mental health.

Concepts: Early intervention in psychosis, Schizoaffective disorder, Medicine, Mental health, Schizophrenia, Mental disorder, Psychiatry, Psychosis

9

The effects of nutrient-based treatments, including adjunctive vitamin or antioxidant supplementation, have been explored extensively in long-term schizophrenia. However, no systematic evaluation of trials in “first-episode psychosis” (FEP) has been conducted, despite the potential benefits of using these treatments during the early stages of illness. Therefore, we aimed to review all studies examining efficacy, tolerability and the biological mechanisms of action, of nutrient supplementation in FEP.

Concepts: Evaluation, Essential nutrient, Ecology, Vitamin, Nutrient, Psychosis, Medicine, Nutrition

8

The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of age at onset on the long-term clinical, social and global outcomes of schizophrenia through a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Original studies were searched from Web of Science, PsycINFO, Pubmed and Scopus, as well as manually. Naturalistic studies with at least a 2-year follow-up were included. Of the 3509 search results, 81 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis was performed in Stata as a random-effect analysis with correlation coefficients between age at onset and the outcomes (categorized into remission, relapse, hospitalization, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, total symptoms, general clinical outcome, employment, social/occupational functioning and global outcome). There was a statistically significant (P < .05) correlation between younger age at onset and more hospitalizations (number of studies, n = 9; correlation, r = 0.17; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.09-0.25), more negative symptoms (n = 7; r = 0.14; 95% CI 0.01-0.27), more relapses (n = 3; r = 0.11; 95% CI 0.02-0.20), poorer social/occupational functioning (n = 12; r = 0.15; 95% CI 0.05-0.25) and poorer global outcome (n = 13; r = 0.14; 95% CI 0.07-0.22). Other relationships were not significant. This was the first systematic review of the effects of age at onset on the long-term outcomes of schizophrenia. The results show that age at onset has a small, but significant impact on some of the outcomes of schizophrenia.

Concepts: Clinical research, Meta-analysis, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, Statistical significance, Confidence interval, Statistical hypothesis testing, Effect size, Statistics

4

Violence risk is an important part of a comprehensive clinical assessment in first-episode psychosis. This study addresses limitations of previous violent outcome research in first-episode psychosis, which has typically investigated selected cohorts or been restricted to violence occurring prior to service contact, with limited use of police data.

4

The aim of this narrative summary was to examine the efficacy of physical activity and exercise as a universal prevention for depression in young people.

3

Social media platforms are commonly used for the expression of suicidal thoughts and feelings, particularly by young people. Despite this, little is known about the ways in which social media can be used for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to identify current evidence pertaining to the ways in which social media are currently used as a tool for suicide prevention.

Concepts: Young, Delaware County, Pennsylvania, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Social media, Media, Pennsylvania, Sociology, Suicide

2

Oxidative stress is strongly implicated in many psychiatric disorders, which has resulted in the development of new interventions to attempt to perturb this pathology. A great deal of attention has been paid to glutathione, which is the brain’s dominant antioxidant and plays a fundamental role in removing free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Measurement of glutathione concentration in the brain in vivo can provide information on redox status and potential for oxidative stress to develop. Glutathione might also represent a marker to assess treatment response.