SciCombinator

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Journal: Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics

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 A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis is important in antibiotic chemotherapy. Basically, the in vivo efficacy of antibiotics that exert concentration-dependent effects can be predicted using conventional PK/PD indices such as the ratio of the area under the curve to the minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) and/or the ratio of the maximum plasma concentration to MIC (Cmax/MIC), whereas that of antibiotics with time-dependent effects can be determined using the period of time for which the drug concentration exceeds the MIC (time above MIC [TAM]). However, an optimal PK/PD index remains to be established for some antibiotics. Thus, a PK/PD model, which describes the PK profile and effect of an antibiotic, was developed, and the results obtained from this model were interpreted to form a PK/PD index map to assess the optimal PK/PD index for the antibiotic. The findings from the map were generally consistent with clinical outcomes even for the antibiotics which became the exception by the conventional classification. For example, AUC/MIC was an optimal index for azithromycin despite its time-dependent bactericidal activity, and Cmax/MIC was a poor index for arbekacin despite its concentration-dependent profile. Thus, the map would be useful for selecting the appropriate PK/PD index for an antibiotic.

Concepts: Time, Effectiveness, Ratio, Antibiotic, Unified Modeling Language, Erythromycin, Bactericide, Ruby

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This study aimed to evaluate the potential of α-cedrene as a new anti-obesity drug by characterizing absorption, metabolism and pharmacokinetics in rats. α-Cedrene was administered intravenously (10 and 20 mg/kg) and orally (50 and 100 mg/kg) to female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood, tissues, urine, and feces were collected at predetermined times. α-Cedrene concentrations were determined by a validated gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). A gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC-MSD) method was used to identify the major metabolite. After i.v. injection, α-cedrene exhibited a rapid clearance (98.4-120.3 ml/min/kg), a large distribution volume (35.9-56.5 l/kg), and a relatively long half-life (4.0-6.4 h). Upon oral administration, it was slowly absorbed (Tmax = 4.4 h) with bioavailability of 48.7-84.8%. No gender differences were found in its pharmacokinetics. Upon oral administration, α-cedrene was highly distributed to tissues, with the tissue-to-plasma partition coefficients (Kp) far greater than unity for all tissues. In particular, its distribution to lipid was notably high (Kp = 132.0) compared to other tissues. A mono-hydroxylated metabolite was identified as a preliminary metabolite in rat plasma. These results suggest that α-cedrene has the favorable pharmacokinetic characteristics to be further tested as an anti-obesity drug in clinical studies.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Male, Metabolism, Gender, Distribution, Absorption, Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability

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MCT1 (SLC16A1), MCT4 (SLC16A3), and MCT11 (SLC16A11) are members of the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family. MCT1 and MCT4 transport pH-related monocarboxylates, such as lactate and pyruvate. MCT11 may also be a proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Although alterations of these substrates are involved in the pathology of cancer and diabetes, little is known about MCT polymorphisms. In this study, genetic variation was evaluated in SLC16A1, SLC16A3, and SLC16A11 in the Japanese population (healthy volunteers, n = 92). Polymorphisms in the coding regions of the SLC16A1, SLC16A3, and SLC16A11 genes were screened by DNA sequencing. A single polymorphism that caused a change in the amino acid sequence was found in SLC16A1 (rs1049434 (T1470A, D490E)) and in SLC16A3 (rs368788465 (C641T, S214F)). Five polymorphisms were detected in the SLC16A11 gene (rs117767867 (G337A, V113I), rs13342692 (A380G, D127G), rs13342232 (T561C, silent), rs75418188 (G1018A, G340S), and rs75493593 (C1327A, P443T)). This information for a healthy population provides a comparison for further studies of patients with various diseases such as cancer and diabetes.

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HLA-B*58:01 has been demonstrated to be associated with allopurinol-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Since HLA-B*58:01 is too complicated to be identified, it is necessary to select an appropriate surrogate biomarker. In Japan, the rs9263726 allele was considered as a surrogate biomarker for HLA-B*58:01, but this was not the case with the Australian cohort. Due to the conflict results, in this study, we aim to demonstrate whether the rs9263726 allele is a surrogate biomarker for HLA-B*58:01 in Han Chinese population. A total of 353 samples (200 cases from the south and 153 cases from the north) were selected to detect HLA-B*58:01 and rs9263726 allele. The HLA-B*58:01 was identified by sequencing-based method, and the rs9263726 allele was identified by Taqman SNP Genotyping Assays. The results showed that the two alleles had a linkage, but not absolute linkage disequilibrium in Han Chinese population.

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Celecoxib was characterized as a substrate of human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 in vitro. In recombinant CYP2D6, celecoxib hydroxylation showed atypical substrate inhibition kinetics with apparent Km, Ki, and Vmax of 67.2 μM, 12.6 μM, and 1.33 μM/min, respectively. In human liver microsomes (HLMs), a concentration-dependent inhibition of celecoxib hydroxylation by quinidine was observed after CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 were inhibited. In individual HLMs with variable CYP2D6 activities, a significant correlation was observed between celecoxib hydroxylation and CYP2D6-selective dextromethorphan O-demethylation when CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities were suppressed (r = 0.97, P < 0.0001). Molecular modeling showed two predominant docking modes of celecoxib with CYP2D6, resulting in either a substrate or an inhibitor. A second allosteric binding antechamber, which stabilized the inhibition mode, was revealed. Modeling results were consistent with the observed substrate inhibition kinetics. Using HLMs from individual donors, the relative contribution of CYP2D6 to celecoxib metabolism was found to be highly variable and dependent on CYP2C9 genotypes, ranging from no contribution in extensive metabolizers with CYP2C9*1*1 genotype to approximately 30% in slow metabolizers with allelic variants CYP2C9*1*3 and CYP2C9*3*3. These results demonstrate that celecoxib may become a potential victim of CYP2D6-associated drug-drug interactions, particularly in individuals with reduced CYP2C9 activity.

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The cellular uptake of mizoribine (MZR), an immunosuppressant, and metabolism of MZR to MZR-5'- monophosphate (MZRP), an active metabolite, were evaluated in L5178Y-R mouse lymphoma cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rats and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs, n = 22). Real-time PCR analysis revealed the expression of ENT1 and ENT2 mRNAs, but not of CNTs, in L5178Y-R cells and rat’s PBMCs. In L5178Y-R cells, the uptake of MZR was suppressed by adenosine, a substrate for ENT1 and ENT2, but not by 5-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (0.1 μM), an ENT1 inhibitor. Saturable metabolism of MZR to MZRP was observed. In rats, peak plasma concentrations of MZR and peak concentrations of MZR and MZRP in PBMCs were observed 3 h after oral administration. MZR disappeared from PBMCs in parallel with plasma MZR, but the disappearance of MZRP from PBMCs appeared to be slow. In KTRs, the mean plasma concentration of MZR 3-4 h after ingestion was 3.14 μg/ml and the mean MZRP concentration in PBMCs was 16.8% of MZR, reflecting the involvement of ENT in the uptake of MZR. A linear relationship was observed between plasma MZR concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml and PBMC’s MZRP concentrations ranging from 90 to 200 ng/ml.

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Tralokinumab is a human monoclonal antibody in clinical development for asthma and atopic dermatitis that specifically neutralizes interleukin-13. This phase I, single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single ascending-dose study assessed the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and immunogenicity of subcutaneous tralokinumab (150, 300, or 600 mg) in thirty healthy Japanese adults. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) in all treatment groups was injection-site pain. The frequency and severity of TEAEs was similar across tralokinumab doses. Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-inf) increased in a dose-proportional manner, and mean t1/2 ranged from 20 to 25 days. No anti-drug antibodies were detected. A post-hoc pooled population PK modeling analysis, incorporating PK data from this study, demonstrated that Japanese individuals had greater systemic exposure to tralokinumab than non-Japanese individuals. This difference was not clinically relevant and was primarily due to differences in body weight, with lower body weight associated with greater PK exposure. Japanese ethnicity was not a significant predictor of tralokinumab PK. This study indicates that single-dose subcutaneous administration of tralokinumab 150-600 mg was well tolerated in Japanese healthy volunteers, and supports the 300 mg dose selection for Japanese patients with asthma in ongoing clinical trials.

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Pharmacotherapy shows striking individual differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, involving drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Recent genetic research has revealed that genetic polymorphisms are important intrinsic factors for these inter-individual differences. This pharmacogenomic information could help develop safer and more effective precision pharmacotherapies and thus, regulatory guidance/guidelines were developed in this area, especially in the EU and US. The Project for the Promotion of Progressive Medicine, Medical Devices, and Regenerative Medicine by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, performed by Tohoku University, reported scientific information on the evaluation of genetic polymorphisms, mainly on drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters, during non-clinical studies and phase I clinical trials in Japanese subjects/patients. We anticipate that this paper will be helpful in drug development for the regulatory usage of pharmacogenomic information, most notably pharmacokinetics.

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This study describes the total disposition profiling of rosuvastatin (RSV) and pitavastatin (PTV) using a single systematic procedure called D-PREX (Disposition Profile Exploration) in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH). The biliary excretion fractions of both statins were clearly observed, which were significantly decreased dependent on the concentration of Ko143, an inhibitor for breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Ko143 also decreased the basolateral efflux fraction of RSV, whereas that of PTV was not significantly affected. To understand these phenomena, effects of Ko143 on biliary excretion (BCRP and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2) and basolateral efflux (MRP3 and MRP4) transporters were examined using transporter-expressing membrane vesicles. BCRP, MRP3 and MRP4-mediated transport of RSV was observed, and Ko143 inhibited these transporters except MRP3. BCRP and MRP4 also mediated the transport of PTV, but the Ko143-mediated inhibition was only clear for BCRP. These results might explain the Ko143-mediated complete and partial inhibition of the biliary excretion and the basolateral efflux of RSV, respectively, in SCHH. In conclusion, D-PREX with sequential sampling of supernatants prior to cell lysis enables the evaluation of total drug disposition profiles resulting from complex interplays of intracellular pathways, which would provide high-throughput evaluation of drug disposition during drug discovery.

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This study was aimed at evaluating changes in CYP3A activity following and during pregnancy by analyzing metabolic markers for CYP3A activity, which can help avoid unnecessary drug exposure and invasive sampling.