SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: DNA repair

0

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways coordinate the excision and re-synthesis of newly-replicated DNA if a mismatched base-pair has been identified by protein MutS or MutS homologues (MSHs) after replication. DNA excision during MMR is initiated at single-strand breaks (SSBs) in vitro, and several redundant processes have been observed in reconstituted systems which either require a pre-formed SSB in the DNA or require a mismatch-activated nicking endonuclease to introduce a SSB in order to initiate MMR. However, the conditions under which each of these processes may actually occur in living cells have remained obscured by the limitations of current MMR assays. Here we use a novel assay involving chemically-modified oligonucleotide probes to insert targeted DNA ‘mismatches’ directly into the genome of living bacteria to interrogate their replication-coupled repair processes quantitatively in a strand-, orientation-, and mismatched nucleotide-specific manner. This ‘semi-protected oligonucleotide recombination’ (SPORE) assay reveals direct evidence in Escherichia coli of an efficient endonuclease-independent MMR process on the lagging strand-a mechanism that has long-since been considered for lagging-strand repair but never directly shown until now. We find endonuclease-independent MMR is coordinated asymmetrically with respect to the replicating DNA-directed primarily from 3'- of the mismatch-and that repair coordinated from 3'- of the mismatch is in fact the primary mechanism of lagging-strand MMR. While further work is required to explore and identify the molecular requirements for this alternative endonuclease-independent MMR pathway, these findings made possible using the SPORE assay are the first direct report of this long-suspected mechanism in vivo.

0

Polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) has been implicated in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To assess the consequences of PNKP deficiency for NHEJ of 3'-phosphate-ended DSBs, PNKP-deficient derivatives of HCT116 and of HeLa cells were generated using CRISPR/CAS9. For both cell lines, PNKP deficiency conferred sensitivity to ionizing radiation as well as to neocarzinostatin (NCS), which specifically induces DSBs bearing protruding 3'-phosphate termini. Moreover, NCS-induced DSBs, detected as 53BP1 foci, were more persistent in PNKP -/- HCT116 cells compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Surprisingly, PNKP-deficient whole-cell and nuclear extracts were biochemically competent in removing both protruding and recessed 3'-phosphates from synthetic DSB substrates, albeit much less efficiently than WT extracts, suggesting an alternative 3'-phosphatase. Measurements by ligation-mediated PCR showed that PNKP-deficient HeLa cells contained significantly more 3'-phosphate-terminated and fewer 3'-hydroxyl-terminated DSBs than parental cells 5-15 min after NCS treatment, but this difference disappeared by 1 h. These results suggest that, despite presence of an alternative 3'-phosphatase, loss of PNKP significantly sensitizes cells to 3'-phosphate-terminated DSBs, due to a 3'-dephosphorylation defect.

0

Impaired autophagy may be associated with normal and pathological aging. Here we explore a link between autophagy and domain function of Werner protein (WRNp). Werner (WRN) mutant cell lines AG11395, AG05229 and normal aged fibroblast AG13129 display a deficient response to tunicamycin mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced autophagy compared to clinically unaffected GM00637 and normal young fibroblast GM03440. Cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated autophagy in WS and normal aged cells is restored after transfection with wild type full length WRN, but deletion of the acidic domain from wild type WRN fails to restore autophagy. The acidic domain of WRNp was shown to regulate its transcriptional activity, and here, we show that it affects the transcription of certain proteins involved in autophagy and aging. Furthermore, siRNA mediated silencing of WRN in normal fibroblast WI-38 resulted in decrease of age related proteins Lamin A/C and Mre11.

0

Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is an ubiquitous DNA repair enzyme present in yeast, plants and animals. It removes a broad range of blocking lesions at the ends of DNA breaks. The catalytic core of TDP1 consists in a pair of conserved histidine-lysine-asparagine (HKN) motifs. Analysis of the human TDP1 (hTDP1) crystal structure reveals potential involvement of additional residues that shape the substrate binding site. In this biochemical study, we analyzed four such conserved residues, tyrosine 204 (Y204), phenylalanine 259 (F259), serine 400 (S400) and tryptophan 590 (W590). We show that the F259 residue of hTDP1 is critical for both 3'- and 5'-phosphodiesterase catalysis. We propose that the double π-π interactions of the F259 residue with the -2 and -3 nucleobases serve to position the nucleopeptide substrate in phase with the active site histidines of hTDP1. Mutating Y204 of hTDP1 to phenylalanine (Y204F), as in fly and yeast TDP1 enzymes, had minor impact on TDP1 activity. In constrast, we find that S400 enhances 3'-processing activity while it suppresses 5'-processing activity, thereby promoting specificity for 3'-substrates. W590 is selectively important for 5'-processing. These results reveal the impact of conserved amino acid residues that participate in defining the DNA binding groove around the dual HKN catalytic core motif of TDP1, and their differential roles in facilitating the 3'- vs 5'-end processing activities of hTDP1.

0

Despite their simple structure, the Notch family of receptors regulates a wide-spectrum of key cellular processes including development, tissue patterning, cell-fate determination, proliferation, differentiation and, cell death. On the other hand, accumulating date pinpointed the role of non-coding microRNAs, namely miRNAs in cancer initiation/progression via regulating the expression of multiple oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, as such the Notch signaling. It is now documented that these two partners are in one or in the opposite directions and rule together the cancer fate. Here, we review the current knowledge relevant to this tricky interplay between different miRNAs and components of Notch signaling pathway. Further, we discuss the implication of this crosstalk in cancer progression/regression in the context of cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, metastasis and emergence of multi-drug resistance. Understanding the molecular cues and mechanisms that occur at the interface of miRNA and Notch signaling would open new avenues for development of novel and effective strategies for cancer therapy.

0

Environmental exposures, reactive by-products of cellular metabolism, and spontaneous deamination events result in a spectrum of DNA adducts that if un-repaired threaten genomic integrity by inducing mutations, increasing instability, and contributing to the initiation and progression of cancer. Assessment of DNA adducts in cells and tissues is critical for genotoxic and carcinogenic evaluation of chemical exposure and may provide insight into the etiology of cancer. Numerous methods to characterize the formation of DNA adducts and their retention for risk assessment have been developed. However, there are still significant drawbacks to the implementation and wide-spread use of these methods, because they often require a substantial amount of biological sample, highly specialized expertise and equipment, and depending on technique, may be limited to the detection and quantification of only a handful of DNA adducts at a time. There is a pressing need for high throughput, easy to implement assays that can assess a broad spectrum of DNA lesions, allowing for faster evaluation of chemical exposures and assessment of the retention of adducts in biological samples. Here, we describe a new methodology, Repair Assisted Damage Detection (RADD), which utilizes a DNA damage processing repair enzyme cocktail to detect and modify sites of DNA damage for a subsequent gap filling reaction that labels the DNA damage sites. This ability to detect and label a broad spectrum of DNA lesions within cells, offers a novel and easy to use tool for assessing levels of DNA damage in cells that have been exposed to environmental agents or have natural variations in DNA repair capacity.

0

The DNA damage response (DDR) is a series of pathways and processes required to repair lesions to DNA. These pathways range from repairing strand breaks to the double helix, damaged bases formed after oxidation or deamination, inaccurate DNA replication resulting in mispaired base alignment, intrastrand crosslinks that trigger cell death, and a plethora of other genomic insults. The DDR is believed to be a critical component of radio and chemoresistance in many cancers as well, with the tumor’s ability to repair therapy induced damage being an important tool used to survive traditional chemotherapeutic agents. Here we summarize advances made in specifically targeting DDR proteins in cancer therapy and project on the potential breakthroughs and pitfalls to arise as the field progresses.

0

The appropriate repair of DNA double strand breaks is critical for genome maintenance. Thus, several cellular pathways collaborate to orchestrate a coordinated response. These include the repair of the breaks, which could be achieved by different mechanisms. A key protein involved in the regulation of the repair of broken chromosomes is CtIP. Here, we have found new partners of CtIP involved in the regulation of DNA break repair through affecting DNA end resection. We focus on the splicing complex SF3B and show that its depletion impairs DNA end resection and hampers homologous recombination. Functionally, SF3B controls CtIP function at, as least, two levels: by affecting CtIP mRNA levels and controlling CtIP recruitment to DNA breaks, in a way that requires ATM-mediated phosphorylation of SF3B2 at serine 289. Indeed, overexpression of CtIP rescues the resection defect caused by SF3B downregulation. Strikingly, other SF3B depletion phenotypes, such as impaired homologous recombination or cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents, are independent of CtIP levels, suggesting a more general role of SF3B in controlling the response to chromosome breaks.

0

How DNA lesions in nucleosomes are recognized for global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) remains poorly understood, and the roles that histone tails may play remains to be established. Histone H3 and H4 N-terminal tails are of particular interest as their acetylation states are important in regulating nucleosomal functions in transcription, replication and repair. In particular the H3 tail has been the focus of recent attention as a site for the interaction with XPC, the GG-NER lesion recognition factor. Here we have investigated how the structure and dynamics of the DNA lesion cis-B[a]P-dG, derived from the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), is impacted by the presence of flanking H3 and H4 tails. This lesion is well-repaired by GG-NER, and adopts a base-displaced/intercalated conformation in which the lesion partner C is displaced into the major groove. We used molecular dynamics simulations to obtain structural and dynamic characterizations for this lesion positioned in nucleosomal DNA so that it is bracketed by the H3 and H4 tails. The H4 tail was studied in unacetylated and acetylated states, while the H3 tail was unacetylated, its state when it binds XPC (Kakumu, Nakanishi et al., 2017). Our results reveal that upon acetylation, the H4 tail is released from the DNA surface; the H3 tail then forms a pocket that induces flipping and capture of the displaced lesion partner base C. This reveals synergistic effects of the behavior of the two tails. We hypothesize that the dual capability of the H3 tail to sense the displaced lesion partner base and to bind XPC could foster recognition of this lesion by XPC for initiation of GG-NER in nucleosomes.

0

Posttranslational modifications of DNA repair proteins have been linked to their function. However, it is not clear if posttranslational acetylation affects subcellular localization of these enzymes. Here, we show that the human DNA glycosylase NEIL1, which is involved in repair of both endo- and exogenously generated oxidized bases via the base excision repair (BER) pathway, is acetylated by histone acetyltransferase p300. Acetylation occurs predominantly at Lys residues 296, 297 and 298 located in NEIL1’s disordered C-terminal domain. NEIL1 mutant having the substitution of Lys 296-298 with neutral Ala loses nuclear localization, whereas Lys > Arg substitution (in 3KR mutant) at the same sites does not affect NEIL1’s nuclear localization or chromatin binding, presumably due to retention of the positive charge. Although non-acetylated NEIL1 can bind to chromatin, acetylated NEIL1 is exclusively chromatin-bound. NEIL1 acetylation while dispensable for its glycosylase activity enhances it due to increased product release. The acetylation-defective 3KR mutant forms less stable complexes with various chromatin proteins, including histone chaperones and BER/single-strand break repair partners, than the wild-type (WT) NEIL1. We also showed that the repair complex with WT NEIL1 has significantly higher BER activity than the 3KR mutant complex. This is consistent with reduced resistance of non-acetylable mutant NEIL1 expressing cells to oxidative stress relative to cells expressing the acetylable WT enzyme. We thus conclude that the major role of acetylable Lys residues in NEIL1 is to stabilize the formation of chromatin-bound repair complexes which protect cells from oxidative stress.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Enzyme, Histone, DNA repair, Posttranslational modification, Acetylation