SciCombinator

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Journal: DNA repair

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Investigation of natural products is an attractive strategy to identify novel compounds for cancer prevention and treatment. Numerous studies have shown the efficacy and safety of natural products, and they have been widely used as alternative treatments for a wide range of illnesses, including cancers. However, it remains unknown whether natural products affect homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair and whether these compounds can be used as sensitizers with minimal toxicity to improve patients' responses to radiation therapy, a mainstay of treatment for many human cancers. In this study, in order to systematically identify natural products with an inhibitory effect on HR repair, we developed a high-throughput image-based HR repair screening assay and screened a chemical library containing natural products. Among the most interesting of the candidate compounds identified from the screen was β-thujaplicin, a bioactive compound isolated from the heart wood of plants in the Cupressaceae family, can significantly inhibit HR repair. We further demonstrated that β-thujaplicin inhibits HR repair by reducing the recruitment of a key HR repair protein, Rad51, to DNA double-strand breaks. More importantly, our results showed that β-thujaplicin can radiosensitize cancer cells. Additionally, β-thujaplicin sensitizes cancer cells to PARP inhibitor in different cancer cell lines. Collectively, our findings for the first time identify natural compound β-thujaplicin, which has a good biosafety profile, as a novel HR repair inhibitor with great potential to be translated into clinical applications as a sensitizer to DNA-damage-inducing treatment such as radiation and PARP inhibitor. In addition, our study provides proof of the principle that our robust high-throughput functional HR repair assay can be used for a large-scale screening system to identify novel natural products that regulate DNA repair and cellular responses to DNA damage-inducing treatments such as radiation therapy.

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Upon DNA binding the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family of enzymes (PARPs) add multiple ADP-ribose subunits to themselves and other acceptor proteins. Inhibitors of PARPs have become an exciting and real prospect for monotherapy and as sensitizers to ionising radiation (IR). The action of PARPs are reversed by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG). Until recently studies of PARG have been limited by the lack of an inhibitor. Here, a first in class, specific, and cell permeable PARG inhibitor, PDD00017273, is shown to radiosensitize. Further, PDD00017273 is compared with the PARP1/2/3 inhibitor olaparib. Both olaparib and PDD00017273 altered the repair of IR-induced DNA damage, resulting in delayed resolution of RAD51 foci compared with control cells. However, only PARG inhibition induced a rapid increase in IR-induced activation of PRKDC (DNA-PK) and perturbed mitotic progression. This suggests that PARG has additional functions in the cell compared with inhibition of PARP1/2/3, likely via reversal of tankyrase activity and/or that inhibiting the removal of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) has a different consequence to inhibiting PAR addition. Overall, our data are consistent with previous genetic findings, reveal new insights into the function of PAR metabolism following IR and demonstrate for the first time the therapeutic potential of PARG inhibitors as radiosensitizing agents.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Bacteria, Radiation therapy, Enzyme inhibitor, Inhibitor, Xanthine oxidase inhibitor

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Fanconi Anaemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by defects in DNA repair, associated with chromosomal instability and cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents such as mitomycin C (MMC). The FA repair pathway involves complex DNA repair mechanisms crucial for genomic stability. Deficiencies in DNA repair genes give rise to chromosomal radiosensitivity. FA patients have shown increased clinical radiosensitivity by exhibiting adverse normal tissue side-effects. The study aimed to investigate chromosomal radiosensitivity of homozygous and heterozygous carriers of FA mutations using three micronucleus (MN) assays. The G0 and S/G2MN assays are cytogenetic assays to evaluate DNA damage induced by ionising radiation in different phases of the cell cycle. The MMC MN assay detects DNA damage induced by a crosslinking agent in the G0 phase. Patients with a clinical diagnosis of FA and their parents were screened for the complete coding region of 20 FA genes. Blood samples of all FA patients and parents were exposed to ionising radiation of 2 and 4Gy. Chromosomal radiosensitivity was evaluated in the G0 and S/G2 phase. Most of our patients were homozygous for the founder mutation FANCG c.637_643delTACCGCC; p.(Tyr213Lysfs*6) while one patient was compound heterozygous for FANCG c.637_643delTACCGCC and FANCG c.1379G > A, p.(Gly460Asp), a novel missense mutation. Another patient was compound heterozygous for two deleterious FANCA mutations. In FA patients, the G0- and S/G2-MN assays show significantly increased chromosomal radiosensitivity and genomic instability. Moreover, chromosomal damage was significantly elevated in MMC treated FA cells. We also observed an increase in chromosomal radiosensitivity and genomic instability in the parents using 3 assays. The effect was significant using the MMC MN assay. The MMC MN assay is advantageous as it is less labour intense, time effective and has potential as a reliable alternative method for detecting FA patients from parents and controls.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Ionizing radiation, Mutation, Evolution, Chromosome, DNA repair

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Human sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is a conserved NAD(+) dependent deacetylase, which functions in important cellular processes including transcription, metabolism, oxidative stress response. It is a robust mitochondrial deacetylase; however, few studies have indicated its nuclear functions. Here we report interaction of SIRT3 with core histones and identified acetylated histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56ac) as its novel substrate, in addition to known substrates acetylated H4K16 and H3K9. Further, we showed in response to DNA damage SIRT3 localizes to the repair foci colocalizing with γH2AX and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) marker p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1). However, it does not colocalize with homologous repair (HR) marker BRCA1. By ChIP break assay, we demonstrated the recruitment of SIRT3 at the double strand-break site in response to DNA damage. Additionally, the relocalization of SIRT3 to the nucleus on MMS treatment led to concurrent decrease in H3K56ac, which is an important step in NHEJ. Depletion of SIRT3 by si-RNA mediated knock down affected recruitment of 53BP1, resulting in compromised NHEJ efficiency, and survival defect as seen by colony formation assay. Altogether, our results demonstrated that SIRT3 recruits 53BP1 to the site of damage thereby plays a significant role in NHEJ pathway.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Genetics, Histone, Histone deacetylase, DNA repair, Nucleosome

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The mitochondrial genome is a matrilineally inherited DNA that encodes numerous essential subunits of the respiratory chain in all metazoans. As such mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence integrity is vital to organismal survival, but it has a limited cadre of DNA repair activities, primarily base excision repair (BER). We have known that the mtDNA is significantly oxidized by both endogenous and exogenous sources, but this does not lead to the expected preferential formation of transversion mutations, which suggest a robust base excision repair (BER) system. This year, two different groups reported compelling evidence that what was believed to be exclusively nuclear DNA repair polymerase, POLB, is located in the mitochondria and plays a significant role in mitochondrial BER, mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial function. In this commentary, we review the findings and highlight remaining questions for the field.

Concepts: DNA, Bacteria, Adenosine triphosphate, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrial DNA, DNA polymerase, Base excision repair, Nuclear DNA

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Mammalian nucleotide excision repair (NER) eliminates the broadest diversity of bulky lesions from DNA with wide specificity. However, the double incision efficiency for structurally different adducts can vary over several orders of magnitude. Therefore, great attention is drawn to the question of the relationship among structural properties of bulky DNA lesions and the rate of damage elimination. This paper studies the properties of several structurally diverse synthetic (model) DNAs containing bulky modifications. Model DNAs have been designed using modified nucleosides (exo-N-{2-N-[N-(4-azido-2,5-difluoro-3-chloropyridin-6-yl)-3-aminopropionyl]aminoethyl}-2'-deoxycytidine (Fap-dC) and 5-{1-[6-(5[6]-fluoresceinylcarbomoyl)hexanoyl]-3-aminoallyl}-2'-deoxyuridine (Flu-dU)) and the nonnucleosidic reagent N-[6-(9-antracenylcarbomoyl)hexanoyl]-3-amino-1,2-propandiol (nAnt). The impact of these lesions on spatial organization and stability of the model DNA was evaluated. Their affinity for the damage sensor XPC was also studied. It was expected, that the values of melting temperature decrease, bending angles and KD values clearly define the row of model DNA substrate properties such as Flu-dU-DNA>nAnt≈Fap-dC-DNA. Unexpectedly the experimentally estimated levels of the substrate properties were actually in the row: nAnt-DNA>Flu-dU-DNA>Fap-dC-DNA. Molecular dynamics simulations have revealed structural and energetic bases for the discrepancies observed. DNA destabilization patterns plotted explain these results on a structural basis in terms of differences in dynamic perturbations of stacking interactions.

Concepts: DNA, Adenosine triphosphate, RNA, Nucleoside, System, Nucleotide, Organization, Nucleobase

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The human RAD51 recombinase possesses DNA pairing and strand exchange activities that are essential for the error-free, homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The recombination activities of RAD51 are activated upon its assembly into presynaptic filaments on single-stranded DNA at resected DSB ends. Defects in filament assembly caused by mutations in RAD51 or its regulators such as BRCA2 are associated with human cancer. Here we describe two novel RAD51 missense variants located in the multimerization/BRCA2 binding region of RAD51. F86L is a breast tumor-derived somatic variant that affects the interface between adjacent RAD51 protomers in the presynaptic filament. E258A is a germline variant that maps to the interface region between the N-terminal and RecA homology domains of RAD51. Both variants exhibit abnormal biochemistry including altered DNA strand exchange activity. Both variants inhibit the DNA strand exchange activity of wild-type RAD51, suggesting a mechanism for negative dominance. The inhibitory effect of F86L on wild-type RAD51 is surprising since F86L alone exhibits robust DNA strand exchange activity. Our findings indicate that even DNA strand exchange-proficient variants can have negative functional interactions with wild-type RAD51. Thus heterozygous F86L or E258 mutations in RAD51 could promote genomic instability, and thereby contribute to tumor progression.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Genetics, Mutation, Genome, DNA repair, DNA replication

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Mitochondrial genome integrity is fundamental to mammalian cell viability. Since mitochondrial DNA is constantly under attack from oxygen radicals released during ATP production, DNA repair is vital in removing oxidatively generated lesions in mitochondrial DNA, but the presence of a strong base excision repair system has not been demonstrated. Here, we addressed the presence of such a system in mammalian mitochondria involving the primary base lesion repair enzyme DNA polymerase (pol) β. Pol β was localized to mammalian mitochondria by electron microscopic-immunogold staining, immunofluorescence co-localization and biochemical experiments. Extracts from purified mitochondria exhibited base excision repair activity that was dependent on pol β. Mitochondria from pol β-deficient mouse fibroblasts had compromised DNA repair and showed elevated levels of superoxide radicals after hydrogen peroxide treatment. Mitochondria in pol β-deficient fibroblasts displayed altered morphology by electron microscopy. These results indicate that mammalian mitochondria contain an efficient base lesion repair system mediated in part by pol β and thus pol β plays a role in preserving mitochondrial genome stability.

Concepts: DNA, Oxygen, Bacteria, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Mitochondrion, Mitochondrial DNA, DNA polymerase

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Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) can remove a wide variety of 3' and 5' terminal DNA adducts. Genetic studies in yeast identified TDP1 as a regulator of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) fidelity in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) lacking terminal adducts. In this communication, we show that TDP1 plays an important role in joining cohesive DSBs in human cells. To investigate the role of TDP1 in NHEJ in live human cells we used CRISPR/cas9 to produce TDP1-knockout (TDP1-KO) HEK-293 cells. As expected, human TDP1-KO cells were highly sensitive to topoisomerase poisons and ionizing radiation. Using a chromosomally-integrated NHEJ reporter substrate to compare end joining between wild type and TDP1-KO cells, we found that TDP1-KO cells have a 5-fold reduced ability to repair I-SceI-generated DSBs. Extracts prepared from TDP1-KO cells had reduced NHEJ activity in vitro, as compared to extracts from wild type cells. Analysis of end-joining junctions showed that TDP1 deficiency reduced end-joining fidelity, with a significant increase in insertion events, similar to previous observations in yeast. It has been reported that phosphorylation of TDP1 serine 81 (TDP1-S81) by ATM and DNA-PK stabilizes TDP1 and recruits TDP1 to sites of DNA damage. We found that end joining in TDP1-KO cells was partially restored by the non-phosphorylatable mutant TDP1-S81A, but not by the phosphomimetic TDP1-S81E. We previously reported that TDP1 physically interacted with XLF. In this study, we found that XLF binding by TDP1 was reduced 2-fold by the S81A mutation, and 10-fold by the S81E phosphomimetic mutation. Our results demonstrate a novel role for TDP1 in NHEJ in human cells. We hypothesize that TDP1 participation in human NHEJ is mediated by interaction with XLF, and that TDP1-XLF interactions and subsequent NHEJ events are regulated by phosphorylation of TDP1-S81.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Mutation, Adenosine triphosphate, Enzyme, DNA repair, Non-homologous end joining

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In this paper, computational investigations have been carried out on an aromatic bis-amidine which is considered to be crucial due to its peculiar properties including anti-Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(PCP), anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. The raw structure of an aromatic bis-amidine namely; 2,5-bis[4-(N-cyclohexyl-amidino)phenyl]furan was retrieved, optimized and geometrical parameters were computed. The computational results have been compared with those of reported experimental values. In order to check its binding capability, we pave the way a step further by the interaction of the molecule with DNA duplex, 5'(CGCGAATTCGCG)3', which consisted of A/T base pairs in its central region. In addition to geometrical, MEP, HOMO-LUMO analyses and IR assignments, molecular docking with DNA has also been performed. The best docked complex was subjected to molecular dynamics simulation for 50ns using AMBER force field. Free energy of binding has been calculated using MM/PBSA method. The outcomes demonstrate that the molecule recognizes both the strands of DNA duplex through hydrogen bonding within the minor groove side, preferably at A/T rich region and remains stable during the course of dynamics. It may be concluded that the compound shows better binding capability with duplex under study and may be used as a drug lead against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

Concepts: DNA, Molecular dynamics, Molecule, Atom, Computational chemistry, Pneumocystis pneumonia, Molecular mechanics, AMBER