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Journal: Diabetology & metabolic syndrome


Although the health burden of shift work has not been extensively studied, evidence suggests that it may affect the metabolic balance and cause obesity and other metabolic disorders. Sleep deprivation, circadian desynchronization and behavioral changes in diet and physical activity are among the most commonly mentioned factors in studies of the association between night work and metabolic disorders. Individual adaptation to night work depends greatly on personal factors such as family and social life, but occupational interventions may also make a positive contribution to the transition to shift work, such as exposure to bright lights during the night shift, melatonin use, shift regularity and clockwise rotation, and dietary adaptations for the metabolic needs of night workers. The evaluation of the impact of night work on health and of the mechanisms underlying this relationship can serve as a basis for intervention strategies to minimize the health burden of shift work. This review aimed to identify highlights regarding therapeutic implications following the association between night and shift work and metabolic disorders, as well as the mechanisms and pathways responsible for these relationships.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Circadian rhythm, Circadian rhythms, Circadian rhythm sleep disorder, Melatonin


Independent of other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, increased arterial stiffness has been established as a predictor of morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of diabetes on arterial stiffness in a representative sample of an urban Brazilian population plus Amerindians.

Concepts: Sample, Mortality rate, Sampling, Myocardial infarction, Diabetes mellitus, The Canon of Medicine, Diabetes, Brazil


A rare sign of some malignant tumors is a sudden eruption of multiple seborrheic keratoses called Leser-Trélat sign. Overproduction of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) or its precursor is the main mechanism related to non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia. Doege-Potter syndrome is the name given to paraneoplastic hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia in presence of a solitary fibrous tumor. This report describes a case of a patient with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and Leser-Trélat sign associated with a malignant solitary fibrous tumor with IGF2 secretion. Both conditions have improved after tumor excision.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Brain tumor, Hypoglycemia, Benign tumor, Tumor, Neoplasm, Doege-Potter syndrome


Modern lifestyle has profoundly modified human sleep habits. Sleep duration has shortened over recent decades from 8 to 6.5 hours resulting in chronic sleep deprivation. Additionally, irregular sleep, shift work and travelling across time zones lead to disruption of circadian rhythms and asynchrony between the master hypothalamic clock and pacemakers in peripheral tissues. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA), which affects 4 - 15% of the population, is not only characterized by impaired sleep architecture but also by repetitive hemoglobin desaturations during sleep. Epidemiological studies have identified impaired sleep as an independent risk factor for all cause of-, as well as for cardiovascular, mortality/morbidity. More recently, sleep abnormalities were causally linked to impairments in glucose homeostasis, metabolic syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This review summarized current knowledge on the metabolic alterations associated with the most prevalent sleep disturbances, i.e. short sleep duration, shift work and OSA. We have focused on various endocrine and molecular mechanisms underlying the associations between inadequate sleep quality, quantity and timing with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. Of these mechanisms, the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, circadian pacemakers in peripheral tissues, adipose tissue metabolism, sympathetic nervous system activation, oxidative stress and whole-body inflammation are discussed. Additionally, the impact of intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation (key components of OSA) on intracellular signaling and metabolism in muscle, liver, fat and pancreas are also examined. In summary, this review provides endocrine and molecular explanations for the associations between common sleep disturbances and the pathogenesis of T2DM.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Sleep, Sleep deprivation, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea


INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, numerous non-skeletal diseases have been reported to be associated with vitamin D deficiency including type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Different studies provide evidence that vitamin D may play a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluates the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance in T2DM. METHOD: Through a before-after study, 100 patients with T2DM, 30–70 years old, were recruited from an Arak diabetes clinic as consecutive attenders. Participants were assessed for clinical and biochemistry. Serum insulin and,25(OH)D concentration, and HOMA-IR was calculated . All measurements were performed at the beginning and the end of the study. Patients received 50,000 unit of vitamin D3 orally per week for eight weeks, Statistical analysis was made using SPSS17. The results were analyzed by descriptive tests, and a comparison between variables were made using paired T-tests or Wilcoxon tests, as appropriate. RESULTS: 100 participants including 70 women (70%) and 30 men (30%) took part in the study. All results were presented as Mean+/-SD, or medians of non-normally distributed.24% of the participants were Vitamin D deficient {serum 25(OH)D<= 20 ng/ml(50nmol/l)}.Mean serum 25 (OH) D concentration was 43.03+/- 19.28 ng/ml (107.5+/-48.2nmol/l).The results at baseline and at the end, for FPG were 138.48+/-36.74 and 131.02+/-39 mg/dl (P=0.05), for insulin, 10.76+/-9.46 and 8.6+/-8.25 muIu/ml (P=0.028) and for HOMA-IR, 3.57+/-3.18 and 2.89+/-3.28 (P=0.008)respectively. CONCLUSION: Our data showed significant improvements in serum FPG, insulin and in HOMA-IR after treatment with vitamin D, suggested that vitamin D supplementation could reduce insulin resistance in T2DM.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Glucose tolerance test, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome


Insulin resistance and hypertension are considered as prototypical “diseases of civilization” that are manifested in the modern environment as plentiful food and sedentary life. The human propensity for insulin resistance and hypertension is a product, at least in part, of our evolutionary history. Adaptation to ancient lifestyle characterized by a low sodium, low-calorie food supply and physical stress to injury response has driven our evolution to shape and preserve a thrifty genotype, which is favorite with energy-saving and sodium conservation. As our civilization evolved, a sedentary lifestyle and sodium- and energy-rich diet, the thrifty genotype is no longer advantageous, and may be maladaptive to disease phenotype, such as hypertension, obesity and insulin resistance syndrome. This article reviews human evolution and the impact of the modern environment on hypertension and insulin resistance.

Concepts: Gene, Natural selection, Evolution, Hypertension, Obesity, Evolutionary biology, Metabolic syndrome, Charles Darwin


To describe the abundance of major phyla and some genera in the gut microbiota of individuals according to dietary habits and examine their associations with inflammatory markers, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk profile.

Concepts: Immune system, Gut flora, Nutrition, Obesity, Escherichia coli, Diet, Diets, Carnivore


Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by chronic hyperglycemia as a consequence of decreased insulin sensitivity, which contributes to bone demineralization and could also be related to changes in serum levels of osteocalcin and insulin, particularly when coupled with a deficiency in the daily consumption of vitamins D3 and K2. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 supplements alone or in combination on osteocalcin levels and metabolic parameters in patients with T2DM.


Although patients with diabetes have 2 to 4 times increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than individuals without diabetes, recent studies indicate that a significant part of patients are in a lower cardiovascular risk category. Men younger than 35 years, women younger than 45 years, patients with diabetes duration of less than 10 years without other risk factors have a much lower risk than patients who have traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and subclinical or established coronary artery disease (CAD). These patients are not risk equivalent as stated in previous studies. On the contrary, when in the presence of traditional risk factors or evidence of subclinical coronary disease (e.g. high coronary calcium score), the coronary risk is much increased and patients may be classified at a higher-risk category. Recent guidelines do not anymore consider diabetes as a CAD risk equivalent and recommend cardiovascular risk stratification for primary prevention. Stratification of diabetic patients improves accuracy in prediction of subclinical CAD, silent ischemia and future cardiovascular events. Stratification also discriminates higher from lower risk patients who may need intensive statin or aspirin prevention, while avoiding overtreatment in lower risk cases. It may also allow the clinician to decide whether to intensify risk reduction actions through specific newer drugs for glucose control such as SGLT-2 inhibitors or GLP-1 agonists, which recently have shown additional cardiovascular protector effect. This review addresses the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk using traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. It also reviews the use of risk calculators and new reclassification tools, focusing on the detection of subclinical atherosclerosis as well as silent ischemia in the asymptomatic patients with diabetes.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Coronary artery disease, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease, Low-density lipoprotein, Cardiovascular diseases


The development of extended-action insulin analogues was motivated by the unfavorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of the conventional long-acting insulin formulations, generally associated with marked inter and intra patient variability and site- and dose-dependent effect variation. The new ultra-long insulin analogue degludec (IDeg) has the same amino acid sequence as human insulin except for the removal of threonine in the position 30 of the B chain (Des-B30, “De”) and the attachment, via a glutamic acid linker (“glu”), of a 16-carbon fatty diacid (hexadecanoic diacid, “dec”) to lysine in the position 29 of the B chain. These modifications allow that, after changing from the pharmaceutical formulation to the subcutaneous environment, IDeg precipitates in the subcutaneous tissue, forming a depot that undergoes a highly predictable gradual dissociation. Thus, once-daily dosing of IDeg results in a low peak: trough ratio, with consequent low intra-individual variability and plasmatic concentrations less critically dependent upon the time of injections. The clinical development program of IDeg (BEGIN) was comprised of 9 therapeutic confirmatory trials of longer duration (26-52 weeks) and showed that the efficacy of IDeg is comparable to insulin glargine in type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes patients across different age, body mass index and ethnic groups. This new ultra-long insulin analogue presents as advantages flexibility in dose timing and lower risk of hypoglycemia.

Concepts: Amino acid, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Obesity, Glutamic acid, Eli Lilly and Company