Journal: Diabetes care
The decline in C-peptide in the 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has been well studied, but little is known about the longer-term trajectory. We aimed to examine the association between log-transformed C-peptide levels and the duration of diabetes up to 40 years after diagnosis.
Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are believed to be common and associated with a worse metabolic profile in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, no previous study has systematically screened this population.
To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness.
OBJECTIVE The possible interaction of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and obesity in regard to type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance has not been well studied. To explore the effect modification of obesity on the association between 25(OH)D and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, data were examined from a nationally representative sample. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The analytic sample for the type 2 diabetes analysis (n = 12,900) was limited to participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2006 over 20 years of age. Participants >20 years of age assigned to the morning session and free of diabetes were limited to the insulin resistance analysis (n = 5,806). Multiplicative interaction was assessed through a cross-product interaction term in a multiple logistic regression model. The presence of additive interaction between insufficient 25(OH)D and obesity (indicated by BMI or waist circumference) was evaluated by calculation of the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). RESULTS There was no multiplicative interaction of insufficient 25(OH)D and obesity on type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance. Furthermore, none of the RERI or AP values were statistically significant in the diabetes analysis. However, there was strong additive interaction between abdominal obesity and insufficient 25(OH)D (RERI 6.45 [95% CI 1.03-11.52]) in regard to insulin resistance. In addition, 47% of the increased odds of insulin resistance can be explained by interaction between insufficient 25(OH)D and high BMI (AP 0.47 [95% CI 0.08-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS Within a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample, abdominal obesity and insufficient 25(OH)D interact to synergistically influence the risk of insulin resistance.
The increasing burdens of obesity and diabetes are two of the most prominent threats to the health of populations of developed and developing countries alike. The Central America Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI) is the first study to examine the prevalence of diabetes in Central America.
Data on cardiac function in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited and conflicting. We assessed whether NAFLD is associated with abnormalities in cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
We used a mixed-methods approach to explore the relationships between participants' perceptions of family members' diabetes self-care knowledge, family members' diabetes-specific supportive and nonsupportive behaviors, and participants' medication adherence and glycemic control (A1C).
To examine whether there is a difference in the association between high pulse pressure and proteinuria, independent of other blood pressure (BP) indices, such as systolic or diastolic BP, among subjects with diabetes, prediabetes, or normal glucose tolerance.
Older people with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of mobility disability. We investigated the association of diabetes with lower-limb muscle mass and muscle quality to verify whether diabetes-related muscle impairments mediate the association between diabetes and low walking speed.
OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis of an independent cross-sectional association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) in adults without known diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS HbA(1c) was measured in whole-blood samples from 2,139 patients undergoing nocturnal recording for suspected OSA. Participants with self-reported diabetes, use of diabetes medication, or HbA(1c) value ≥6.5% were excluded from this study. Our final sample size comprised 1,599 patients. RESULTS A dose-response relationship was observed between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and the percentage of patients with HbA(1c) >6.0%, ranging from 10.8% for AHI <5 to 34.2% for AHI ≥50. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking habits, BMI, waist circumference, cardiovascular morbidity, daytime sleepiness, depression, insomnia, sleep duration, and study site, odds ratios (95% CIs) for HbA(1c) >6.0% were 1 (reference), 1.40 (0.84-2.32), 1.80 (1.19-2.72), 2.02 (1.31-3.14), and 2.96 (1.58-5.54) for AHI values <5, 5 to <15, 15 to <30, 30 to <50, and ≥50, respectively. Increasing hypoxemia during sleep was also independently associated with the odds of HbA(1c) >6.0%. CONCLUSIONS Among adults without known diabetes, increasing OSA severity is independently associated with impaired glucose metabolism, as assessed by higher HbA(1c) values, which may expose them to higher risks of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.