SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Dermatology and therapy

144

Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be a useful tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis of various general dermatological disorders. In this article, we sought to provide an up-to-date practical overview on the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analysing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological disorders grouped according to their clinical presentation, i.e. dermatoses presenting with erythematous-desquamative patches/plaques (plaque psoriasis, eczematous dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, mycosis fungoides and subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus), papulosquamous/papulokeratotic dermatoses (lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, papulosquamous sarcoidosis, guttate psoriasis, pityriasis lichenoides chronica, classical pityriasis rubra pilaris, porokeratosis, lymphomatoid papulosis, papulosquamous chronic GVHD, parakeratosis variegata, Grover disease, Darier disease and BRAF-inhibitor-induced acantholytic dyskeratosis), facial inflammatory skin diseases (rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, discoid lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, lupus vulgaris, granuloma faciale and demodicidosis), acquired keratodermas (chronic hand eczema, palmar psoriasis, keratoderma due to mycosis fungoides, keratoderma resulting from pityriasis rubra pilaris, tinea manuum, palmar lichen planus and aquagenic palmar keratoderma), sclero-atrophic dermatoses (necrobiosis lipoidica, morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus), hypopigmented macular diseases (extragenital guttate lichen sclerosus, achromic pityriasis versicolor, guttate vitiligo, idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis, progressive macular hypomelanosis and postinflammatory hypopigmentations), hyperpigmented maculopapular diseases (pityriasis versicolor, lichen planus pigmentosus, Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, Dowling-Degos disease, erythema ab igne, macular amyloidosis, lichen amyloidosus, friction melanosis, terra firma-forme dermatosis, urticaria pigmentosa and telangiectasia macularis eruptiva perstans), itchy papulonodular dermatoses (hypertrophic lichen planus, prurigo nodularis, nodular scabies and acquired perforating dermatosis), erythrodermas (due to psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, mycosis fungoides, pityriasis rubra pilaris and scabies), noninfectious balanitis (Zoon’s plasma cell balanitis, psoriatic balanitis, seborrheic dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat, inflammatory cicatricial alopecias (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus, lichen planopilaris, frontal fibrosing alopecia and folliculitis decalvans), nonscarring alopecias (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium) and scaling disorders of the scalp (tinea capitis, scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis and pityriasis amiantacea).

Concepts: Discoid lupus erythematosus, Psoriasis, Immunosuppressive drug, Eczema, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Autoimmune diseases, Conditions of the skin appendages, Lupus erythematosus

26

The development of several highly effective biologic drugs in the past decade has revolutionized the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. With increased understanding of the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis, the emphasis has turned toward more specific targets for psoriasis drugs. Although the complex immunological pathway of psoriasis is not yet completely understood, current models emphasize the significant importance of interleukin (IL)-23 and IL-17. Several biologic drugs targeting these cytokines are now in various stages of drug development. Drugs targeting IL-23 include BI-655066, briakinumab, guselkumab, tildrakizumab, and ustekinumab. Drugs targeting IL-17 include brodalumab, ixekizumab, and secukinumab. While many of these have shown safety and good efficacy in clinical trials of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, long-term safety is still to be established.

Concepts: Ustekinumab, Interleukin 17, Interleukin, Cytokine, Effectiveness, Psoriasis, Pharmacology, Clinical trial

26

Skin and soft tissue infections involve microbial invasion of the skin and underlying soft tissues and are estimated to affect 7-10% of hospitalized patients worldwide. Nadifloxacin, a topical fluoroquinolone, has been shown to be effective against aerobic Gram-negative, Gram-positive (including MRSA and coagulase-negative staphylococci), and anaerobic bacteria. However, there is paucity of data comparing efficacy and safety of 1% nadifloxacin with other anti-bacterials for skin infections in Indian patients.

Concepts: Antibiotic, Staphylococcus aureus, Antibiotic resistance, Skin, Tissues, Staphylococcus, Bacteria, Microbiology

25

“Darwin’s tubercle” is a term used to describe an atavistic swelling of the posterior helix that is present in some individuals. Little is known about its prevalence, characteristics, and function. With growing interest in the individuality of external ear patterns and its possible applications to personal identification, more knowledge about this tubercle is warranted.

Concepts: Person, Darwin's tubercle, Ear

20

A major clinical challenge in treating allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is that the first line of treatment is based on the use of corticosteroids. In this study, we aimed to develop a formulation that is devoid of steroids.

Concepts: Inflammation, Glucocorticoid, Hypersensitivity, Dermatitis, Contact dermatitis, Eczema

13

Skin-bleaching practices, such as using skin creams and soaps to achieve a lighter skin tone, are common throughout the world and are triggered by cosmetic reasons that oftentimes have deep historical, economic, sociocultural, and psychosocial roots. Exposure to chemicals in the bleaching products, notably, mercury (Hg), hydroquinone, and steroids, has been associated with a variety of adverse health effects, such as Hg poisoning and exogenous ochronosis. In New York City (NYC), skin care product use has been identified as an important route of Hg exposure, especially among Caribbean-born blacks and Dominicans. However, surprisingly sparse information is available on the epidemiology of the health impacts of skin-bleaching practices among these populations. We highlight the dearth of large-scale, comprehensive, community-based, clinical, and translational research in this area, especially the limited skin-bleaching-related research among non-White populations in the US. We offer five new research directions, including investigating the known and under-studied health consequences among populations for which the skin bleach practice is newly emerging at an alarming rate using innovative laboratory and statistical methods. We call for conducting methodologically rigorous, multidisciplinary, and culturally sensitive research in order to provide insights into the root and the epidemiological status of the practice and provide evidence of exposure-outcome associations, with an ultimate goal of developing potential intervention strategies to reduce the health burdens of skin-bleaching practice.

Concepts: Public health, Statistics, Skin whitening, American Broadcasting Company, Skin, Epidemiology, Human skin color, New York City

10

People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently challenging, given the enormous and conflicting evidence that exists on this subject. There are several reasons to suspect a role for micronutrients in non-scarring alopecia. Micronutrients are major elements in the normal hair follicle cycle, playing a role in cellular turnover, a frequent occurrence in the matrix cells in the follicle bulb that are rapidly dividing. Management of alopecia is an essential aspect of clinical dermatology given the prevalence of hair loss and its significant impact on patients' quality of life. The role of nutrition and diet in treating hair loss represents a dynamic and growing area of inquiry. In this review we summarize the role of vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, iron, selenium, and zinc, in non-scarring alopecia. A broad literature search of PubMed and Google Scholar was performed in July 2018 to compile published articles that study the relationship between vitamins and minerals, and hair loss. Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals play an important, but not entirely clear role in normal hair follicle development and immune cell function. Deficiency of such micronutrients may represent a modifiable risk factor associated with the development, prevention, and treatment of alopecia. Given the role of vitamins and minerals in the hair cycle and immune defense mechanism, large double-blind placebo-controlled trials are required to determine the effect of specific micronutrient supplementation on hair growth in those with both micronutrient deficiency and non-scarring alopecia to establish any association between hair loss and such micronutrient deficiency.Plain Language Summary: Plain language summary available for this article.

6

Atrophic scarring occurs throughout the course of inflammatory acne and across the spectrum of severity. This study evaluates perceptions of the general population toward individuals with clear skin and acne scars.

Concepts: FN SCAR, Perception, Sebaceous gland, Skin, Inflammation, Keloid, Scar, Acne vulgaris

4

Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is an antioxidant that has multiple biologic effects including antimicrobial properties. Acne vulgaris is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit, characterized by an inflammatory host immune response to the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). This study sought to determine whether resveratrol may be a potential treatment for acne vulgaris.

Concepts: Immune system, Propionibacterium, Microbiology, Anabolic steroid, Inflammation, Sebaceous gland, Propionibacterium acnes, Acne vulgaris

3

Keloids are a prevalent chronic skin disorder with significant psychosocial morbidity. Intralesional corticosteroid injections are the first-line treatment but are painful and require repeated injections by medical professionals. Dissolving microneedles are a novel method of cutaneous drug delivery that induces minimal/no pain and can be self-administered. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triamcinolone-embedded dissolving microneedles in treatment of keloids.