SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Dermatologic therapy

26

Phyllanthus emblica, vitamin E, and caroteinods are compounds showing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and repigmenting effects, whose role in vitiligo treatment has not been evaluated so far. Sixty-five subjects (group A) were treated with one tablet of an oral supplement containing P. emblica (100 mg), vitamin E (4.7 mg), and carotenoids (10 mg) three times/day for 6 months and compared with a control group (group B, 65 patients), which instead was not treated with antioxidants. Both groups were simultaneously treated with a comparable topical therapy and/or phototherapy. After a 6 months follow-up, a significantly higher number of patients in group A had a mild repigmentation on the head/neck regions (p = 0.019) and on the trunk (trend, p = 0.051). The number of patients who presented no repigmentation in head/neck, trunk, upper, and lower limbs was significantly higher in group B (respectively, p = 0.009, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.025). Moreover, group B patients showed higher signs of inflammation (p = 0.002), a more rapid growth of the lesions (p = 0.039), a higher percentage of worsening disease (p = 0.003), and more erythema (p = 0.059), whereas group A patients showed a higher percentage of steady disease (p = 0.065). Our results suggest that the supplement with antioxidants in patients with vitiligo might represent a valuable instrument to increase the effectiveness of other vitiligo treatments.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Phyllanthus emblica, Phyllanthus, Phyllanthaceae

25

The purpose of our study was to verify the results of the association of Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated with intense pulsed light, in order to treat patients with refractory melasma. The combination of these two devices seems to be the best treatment to combat hyperpigmentation produced by melasma, with low occurrence of side effects, which may be justified by the selective photothermolysis at subcellular level.

Concepts: Laser, The Association, Intense pulsed light, Hair removal, Depilation

24

Traction alopecia is hair loss that occurs after persistent pulling (e.g., during cosmetic procedures) on the roots of hair over time. Unlike plucking, which is painful, persistent pulling may go unnoticed until a patient presents with either bald spots or diffuse telogen shedding. Each hair follicle in the scalp contains an arrector pili muscle that, when contracted, erects the hair. The smooth muscle in the arrector pili expresses α1 adrenergic receptors (α1 -AR). As such, we hypothesized that contraction of the arrector pili muscle via an α1 -AR agonist would increase the threshold of force required to pluck hair during cosmetic procedures. Female subjects, ages 18-40, were recruited to study the effect of topically applied phenylephrine, a selective α1 -AR agonist, on epilation force and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures. In our blinded study, 80% of subjects demonstrated reduced shedding on days using phenylephrine compared to days using a placebo solution. The average reduction in hair loss was approximately 42%. In addition, the force threshold required for epilation increased by approximately 172% following topical phenylephrine application. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the utility of α1 -AR agonists in the treatment of traction alopecia and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Chemotherapy, Agonist, Adrenergic receptor, Alopecia, Baldness, Hair removal, Traction alopecia

0

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer in the world, usually arises in sun-exposed areas of the skin. The therapeutic approach to periocular BCC has changed in the last few years. Currently the treatment, considering the delicate localization of the disease, must not only ensure complete recovery from the neoplastic disease, but must also satisfy functional and aesthetic criteria. In this study we tried to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser and photodynamic therapy in periocular BCC.

0

Most studies of oral oxybutynin (OOx) for the treatment of hyperhidrosis (HH) have assumed a stable treatment protocol, without taking into account adverse effects (AE) or seasonal variations in temperature. The objective is to evaluate adjusting the dose of OOx according to the time of year. Prospective study of patients who began OOx for HH between 2007 and 2017, and maintained treatment for at least 1 year, with a progressively increasing dose was performed. All patients were recommended to vary the dose of medication according to the time of year. Baseline epidemiological data, the response to treatment and AE were analyzed. About 122 patients were included (average age of 33.8 years). Up to 60.7% varied the dose. Significantly better results were obtained in the group that varied the dose. Twenty patients suspended the treatment in winter. Among them the adjusted OR was 3.04 (95% CI 1.24-7.45) for an excellent response. The frequency of AE was 74.6% with no differences among groups. Most patients are able to control their HH without requiring the same dose of OOx throughout the year. Given that the possible AE of OOx are dose-dependent, it seems reasonable to vary it according to the time of year.

0

Treatment of severe psoriasis in HCV positive patients is challenging, because several psoriasis medications have a toxic effect on the liver, and interferon alpha, used to treat hepatitis, can induce worsening of psoriatic lesions. TNF-alpha inhibitors seem to be a safe and effective option in HCV positive psoriatic patients, but there are concerns about long-term safety, impact on liver fibrosis progression and risk of immune-mediated liver injury. With regard to HCV treatment, new direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) seem to be extremely effective, with minimal side effects, but little is known about possible interactions with other medications, particularly with biologics. We report the case of a psoriatic patient, in treatment with Etanercept, who needed to undergo HCV eradication with Daclastavir and Sofosbuvir because of worsening liver fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis C. The present treatment produced excellent results in terms of HCV eradication and control of psoriatic lesions, without side effects.

0

Topical application of timolol cream is effective and convenient for treating superficial infantile hemangiomas. Intralesional injection of corticosteroids, such as diprospan, is useful for the treatment of superficia infantile hemangiomas without systemic side effects. We conducted a self-controlled study to investigate whether a combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream would be more efficient than timolol cream alone in thick superficial infantile hemangiomas. Thirty-eight patients with 39 thick superficial infantile hemangiomas were recruited. Each lesion was randomly divided into two equal parts: one part was treated with topical timolol 0.5% cream (timolol cream group), while the other part was treated with injection of diprospan combined with topical timolol 0.5% cream (combined treatment group). Infants were followed every 4 weeks to determine whether injections should be continued, and timolol cream was applied four times daily for 5 months. During 5 months of treatment, three specialist physicians were invited to evaluate the therapeutic effects. The combined treatment group showed better lesion involution than did the timolol cream group regarding lesion thickness and color of lesions. The combination of intralesional injection of diprospan with topical timolol 0.5% cream is a suitable and safe strategy for thick superficial infantile hemangiomas.

0

Actinic cheilitis (AC) can precede the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lip, a location with higher risk of invasiveness and metastasis. Herein, we reported the use of ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) 0.015% gel on three consecutive days to treat three patients suffering from AC. All the three patients achieved complete clearance of AC with rapid clinical effect, favorable safety profile, good patient’s compliance related to short time of applications, and few local skin reactions. So IngMeb is an attractive new therapy for AC. Moreover, the present case report adds further evidence to the usefulness of dermoscopy and Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in the assessment and monitoring of treatment outcome.

Concepts: Time, Cancer, Lung cancer, Medical terms, Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Microscopy, Actinic keratosis

0

Despite the high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis worldwide, extrapulmonary tuberculosis especially cutaneous and osteoarticular tuberculosis occurs rarely, both of which are often difficult to be recognized since their symptoms mimic those of many other cutaneous and osteoarticular diseases. Here, we present a rare case of cutaneous tuberculosis potentially accompanied by osteroarticular tuberculosis in a 36-year-old Chinese man who presented with multiple persistent skin ulcers for one year and were nonresponsive to multiple therapeutic approaches. A single anti-tuberculous regimen with rifampicin resulted in healing of all skin lesions and excellent recovery of the general condition.

Concepts: Disease, Infectious disease, Pulmonology, Lung, Epithelium, Tuberculosis, Tetrapod, Rifampicin

0

Morbihan’s disease is characterized by chronic persistent facial edema of the upper half of the face, absence of typical diagnostic findings, and refractoriness to treatment. A 44-year-old man was diagnosed with Morbihan’s disease based on clinical signs and histopathology, which showed dermal edema in upper dermis, discrete lymphocytic infiltrate without granulomatous reaction, and mast cell infiltration. After long-term therapy with intralesional triamcinolone a remarkable objective and subjective clinical response was observed. Reported cases of Morbihan’s disease are reviewed, with respect to their treatment and histopathological findings. Mast cell infiltration has been observed on histopathology in most patients who responded to intralesional triamcinolone, suggesting a possible marker of response. The long-lasting response seen in our case indicates the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone in this rare condition.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Medicine, Asthma, Medical terms, Anatomical pathology, Greek loanwords