SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Dermatologic therapy

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Phyllanthus emblica, vitamin E, and caroteinods are compounds showing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and repigmenting effects, whose role in vitiligo treatment has not been evaluated so far. Sixty-five subjects (group A) were treated with one tablet of an oral supplement containing P. emblica (100 mg), vitamin E (4.7 mg), and carotenoids (10 mg) three times/day for 6 months and compared with a control group (group B, 65 patients), which instead was not treated with antioxidants. Both groups were simultaneously treated with a comparable topical therapy and/or phototherapy. After a 6 months follow-up, a significantly higher number of patients in group A had a mild repigmentation on the head/neck regions (p = 0.019) and on the trunk (trend, p = 0.051). The number of patients who presented no repigmentation in head/neck, trunk, upper, and lower limbs was significantly higher in group B (respectively, p = 0.009, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.025). Moreover, group B patients showed higher signs of inflammation (p = 0.002), a more rapid growth of the lesions (p = 0.039), a higher percentage of worsening disease (p = 0.003), and more erythema (p = 0.059), whereas group A patients showed a higher percentage of steady disease (p = 0.065). Our results suggest that the supplement with antioxidants in patients with vitiligo might represent a valuable instrument to increase the effectiveness of other vitiligo treatments.

Concepts: Antioxidant, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Phyllanthus emblica, Phyllanthus, Phyllanthaceae

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The purpose of our study was to verify the results of the association of Q-switched Nd: YAG non-ablative fractionated with intense pulsed light, in order to treat patients with refractory melasma. The combination of these two devices seems to be the best treatment to combat hyperpigmentation produced by melasma, with low occurrence of side effects, which may be justified by the selective photothermolysis at subcellular level.

Concepts: Laser, The Association, Intense pulsed light, Hair removal, Depilation

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Traction alopecia is hair loss that occurs after persistent pulling (e.g., during cosmetic procedures) on the roots of hair over time. Unlike plucking, which is painful, persistent pulling may go unnoticed until a patient presents with either bald spots or diffuse telogen shedding. Each hair follicle in the scalp contains an arrector pili muscle that, when contracted, erects the hair. The smooth muscle in the arrector pili expresses α1 adrenergic receptors (α1 -AR). As such, we hypothesized that contraction of the arrector pili muscle via an α1 -AR agonist would increase the threshold of force required to pluck hair during cosmetic procedures. Female subjects, ages 18-40, were recruited to study the effect of topically applied phenylephrine, a selective α1 -AR agonist, on epilation force and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures. In our blinded study, 80% of subjects demonstrated reduced shedding on days using phenylephrine compared to days using a placebo solution. The average reduction in hair loss was approximately 42%. In addition, the force threshold required for epilation increased by approximately 172% following topical phenylephrine application. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating the utility of α1 -AR agonists in the treatment of traction alopecia and hair shedding during cosmetic procedures.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Chemotherapy, Agonist, Adrenergic receptor, Alopecia, Baldness, Hair removal, Traction alopecia

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Psoriasis is a chronic systemic inflammatory skin disease, which has been associated with an increased risk of numerous medical and psychiatric comorbidities, including suicidality. Suicidality, which can be divided into the categories of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide, is highly prevalent in the psoriasis population, and multiple studies have been published on the subject of psoriasis and suicidal ideation and behavior (SIB), including two recent meta-analyses. However, the available literature is limited and inconsistent, and the association between the two remains incompletely understood. The present review aims to cohesively synthesize and summarize the available evidence, while making a clinically relevant distinction between the sub-categories of suicidality, by examining not only the epidemiology of the association but also the plausible molecular mechanisms and the potential influence of biologic therapies. Additionally, this review aims to critically examine and understand the potential contribution of depression in the psoriasis and suicidality relationship. This will allow us to better understand the complex and multi-faceted relationship between psoriasis and suicidality, to identify those who may be most at risk for SIB, to make evidence-based clinical decisions regarding treatment and management, and to more completely address the needs of psoriasis patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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This study compares the effective of of topical application of olive and calendula ointments on childrens' diaper dermatitis (DD). This triple-blind clinical trial was conducted on 73 healthy children under the age of 2 years with non-severe and not infected DD, referred to a pediatric healthcare center in Tabriz, Iran. The children were assigned to 1.5% olive ointment (n = 37) and 1.5% calendula ointment (n = 39) using a random block method with the ratio of 2:2. The severity of DD in both groups was measured and compared on a six-point scale on days 0 (before the intervention) and 3, 5, and 7 after interventions. The findings releaved there was not significant stastistical difference between the olive oil and calendula groups in terms of severity of DD in the third, fifth and seventh days. No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications in this study. The external validity and consequently the ability to generalize the findings may be diminished as this study was conducted at a single site. Owing to olive ointment and calendula ointment providing the same results in the healing of DD, olive ointment can be used as an alternative case to DD.

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Máxime Kuczyński (1890-1967), a medical pioneer born in Poland, was renowned for his work in tropical medicine in the Peruvian jungle, especially on Bartonella baciliformis, the cutaneous form known as verruga peruana of deadly Oroya fever. His unique university training in anthropology, philosophy, and parasitology lead to a participatory observational method of practicing medicine. At the request of the Peruvian President, he ventured into the Peruvian Amazon in 1936 to establish a public health service in partnership with indigenous populations. In June 2016, his son Pedro Pablo Kuczyński, a former Prime Minister of Peru, was elected the 66th President of Peru.

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The presence of Necrotic tissue is one of the major problems that effect healing of burn wounds. This study was designed to fined the effectiveness of collagenase versus Mebo ointment on removal of necrotic tissue of burns .Twenty mice randomly assigned and divided into four groups. For group 1 burn wounds were treated with Collagenase ointment only, group 2 burn wounds were treated with Mebo ointment, group 3 burn wounds were treated with white Vaseline alone, group 4 burn wounds were considered as control and left without treatment.In each group the time of treatment were considered .The results indicated that the removal time of necrotic tissue and healing process was better in the case of using Collagenase than using Mebo ointment for treatment of burns This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Inverse psoriasis commonly involves skin fold areas including the axillae, perianal skin, intergluteal cleft, inframammary, genital/inguinal, abdominal, and retroauricular folds. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are indicated for the treatment of atopic dermatitis but have also been studied in the treatment of psoriasis. The object of the present study is to define the efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors in the treatment of psoriasis. We checked for English-vernacular articles conveyed since 1990 in PubMed, Ovid/Cochrane, and Embase using “tacrolimus,” “pimecrolimus,” or “topical calcineurin inhibitors,” and “psoriasis” as keywords. Eight double-blind studies and seven open studies displayed the ampleness of topical tacrolimus in psoriasis. Included studies demonstrated a considerable efficacy of topical administration of tacrolimus and pimecrolimus in the treatment of psoriasis, especially for facial, genital, and intertriginous areas. The role of topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus in the treatment of psoriasis seems to be promising as shown by the results of double-blind and open studies. Because these agents do not cause cutaneous atrophy, they have a special role in facial, genital, and intertriginous psoriatic lesions. Both agents await additional investigation to determine their roles.

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A 57-year-old Caucasian female presented to our clinic with her 23-year-old son, who was profoundly autistic. Our patient was convinced that her son had an infestation with fibers and believed that he had developed the condition as a young child. She described the symptoms of the infestation in her son’s skin on his behalf, as he was not able to communicate. She identified dietary factors as a causative factor and wanted them removed from his diet. Her son had seborrhoeic dermatitis on examination, with no evidence of an infestation. Our patient later identified that fibers were coming out of her skin also. Her medical history included a road traffic accident resulting in back pain. Blood, urine, and microbiological investigations were normal. She was diagnosed with delusional infestation (DI) by proxy, and was started on risperidone. We present an interesting case of a patient with DI by proxy, in which the delusional beliefs of the mother have been projected onto her son. Issues of safeguarding vulnerable adults are raised in such cases, suggesting the crucial role of the physician in ensuring patient safety. DI by proxy has been reported in patients with children and animals, but we believe this is the first report of DI by proxy involving a vulnerable adult.

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Several studies have established that sulfotransferase enzyme activity in the outer root sheath of plucked hair follicles predicts response to topical minoxidil in the treatment of pattern hair loss. However, the prevalence of this enzyme activity among Indian patients has not been studied. Additionally, no reports in the literature characterize sulfotransferase activity based on sex, age, duration of hair loss, grade of hair loss, and family history. In this study we utilized a sulfotransferase activity assay first reported by Goren et al. We characterize the follicular sulfotransferase activity of 120 pattern hair loss patients visiting a dermatology outpatient clinic in India. Overall, 40.8% of patients with pattern hair loss had low levels of sulfotransferase. Surprisingly, 49.3% of men had low levels of sulfotransferase compared to 26.6% of women. No correlation was found between sulfotransferase activity and age, duration of hair loss, grade of hair loss, or family history. A sub-analysis of patient reported outcomes (PRO) validated previous findings that sulfotransferase enzyme activity is a predictive marker for minoxidil response in pattern hair loss patients.