SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Der Anaesthesist

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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. New targeted and individualized therapies and drugs provide a survival benefit for an increasing number of patients, but can also cause severe side effects. An increasing number of oncology patients are admitted to intensive care units (ICU) because of cancer-related complications or treatment-associated side effects. Postoperative care, respiratory distress and sepsis are the leading causes for admission. Tumor mass syndromes and tumor lysis may require urgent treatment. Traditional anticancer chemotherapy is associated with infections and immunosuppression. Newer agents are generally well-tolerated and side effects are mild or moderate, but overwhelming inflammation and autoimmunity can also occur. Cellular treatment, such as with chimeric antigen receptor modified T‑cells, monoclonal and bispecific antibodies targeting immune effectors and tumor cells are associated with cytokine release syndrome (CRS) with hypotension, skin reactions and fever. It is related to excessively high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Immune checkpoint inhibitors can lead to immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), such as colitis and endocrine disorders. Noninfectious respiratory complications, such as pneumonitis can also occur. Recent studies revealed that short-term and medium-term survival of cancer patients is better than previously expected. In this review article we summarize diagnostic and treatment strategies for common life-threatening complications and emergencies requiring ICU admission. Furthermore, strategies for rational admission policies are presented.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Cancer, Oncology, Cytokine, Chemotherapy, Intensive care medicine, Tumor

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Medication errors are frequent and a serious safety concern. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is used daily in healthcare as a disinfectant. Its accidental intravascular injection is scarcely described. Serious complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could be a consequence. We describe a case of central venous administration of 0.1% CHX mouthwash, its potential complications and possibilities of treatment. In contrast to another case report our patient had no detectable adverse side effects. The immediate hemofiltration and cleansing of the i. v. line may have contributed to this favorable outcome.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Blood, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Infant respiratory distress syndrome, Pulmonary contusion, Pulmonary alveolus, Iatrogenesis, Chlorhexidine

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Anesthetic procedures may lead to severe and potentially life-threatening complications (e. g. difficult airway, allergic reactions, malignant hyperthermia). Most complications can be avoided in future anesthetic procedures with adequate preparation (e. g. awake intubation, trigger-free anesthesia). In Germany, anesthesia problem cards were introduced two decades ago to identify patients at risk and to increase patient safety by creating a standardized documentation system for anesthesia-related complications. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the utility and problems of anesthesia problem cards in clinical practice.

Concepts: Medical ethics, Medical terms, Patient, The Canon of Medicine, Allergy, Anesthesia, Problem, Patient safety

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In a series of articles dealing with hypnotics for induction of anesthesia, this article describes the development and current value of propofol. Its significance far exceeds that of a pure induction hypnotic (sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit). Propofol is also used for sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and on the intensive care unit. In the field of induction of anesthesia, the alternatives are barely used. Some contraindications are still controversial whereas others are no longer sufficiently anchored in the users' awareness (widespread off-label use). Adverse effects, such as injection pain, infection risk and propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS) could be significantly reduced by pharmacovigilance. With appropriate caution nearly the whole spectrum of anesthesiology patients can be treated using propofol. The hemodynamic side effects and the rare but potentially fatal PRIS are limitations. Further developments address the water solubility and the solubilizing agents of propofol.

Concepts: Therapeutic effect, Pharmacology, Medical terms, Anesthesia, Adverse drug reaction, Methylphenidate, Sedation, Hypnotic

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Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) comprises a bundle of different interventions to improve anti-infective treatment in a hospital setting. An important component of ABS interventions is the interdisciplinary approach to infection management. Besides improving infrastructural aspects on a hospital level, including surveillance of the use of anti-infective agents and nosocomial infections, collation and interpretation of statistics on resistance and formulation of local treatment guidelines, ABS teams go to the wards and advise treating physicians on antibiotic therapy. Frequent approaches for optimization are selection of substances, administration route, dosing of medication and duration of treatment. An important overall objective of ABS is the reduction of resistance induction in order to preserve the therapeutic efficiency of antibiotics. A number of studies have shown that this goal can be achieved in different clinical settings without negatively affecting patient outcome. The strategies of ABS can also be applied with no problems to critically ill patients on the intensive care unit.

Concepts: Medicine, Bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Infection, Antibiotic resistance, Antibiotic, Penicillin, Clostridium difficile

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Airway management during resuscitation is pivotal for treating hypoxia and inducing reoxygenation. This German Resuscitation Registry (GRR) analysis investigated the influence of the type of airway used in patients treated with manual chest compression (mCC) and automated chest compression devices (ACCD) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Asystole, Drowning

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Perioperative bleeding in Jehovah’s Witnesses leaves physicians with difficult medical and ethical decisions. We report the case of a 45-year-old man, who refused to accept red blood cell concentrates by a patient directive. A postoperative bleeding occurred after removal of a transplanted kidney. Despite critically low hemoglobin (3.1 g/dl) and hematocrit (9.5%) levels, the case was managed without red blood cell transfusions. The patient showed an amazingly quick recovery and was discharged from hospital after 24 days without any sequelae.

Concepts: Hemoglobin, Erythropoietin, Blood, Red blood cell, Hematology, Hematocrit, Blood transfusion, Jehovah's Witnesses

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In response to the global increase in antibiotic resistance, the concept of antibiotic stewardship (ABS) has become increasingly important in recent years. Several publications have demonstrated the effectiveness of ABS, mainly in university facilities. This retrospective observational study describes the implementation of ABS in a basic care hospital.

Concepts: Observational study, Antibiotic resistance, Retrospective

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Although very rare, severe neurological complications can occur when undergoing spinal anesthesia. This report describes and analyses a case of spinal injury due to an undiagnosed tethered cord (TC) during spinal anesthesia for a cesarean section of a 31-year-old woman expecting twins. As a consequence of spinal dysraphism during embryogenesis, an atypically low conus level can occur and increase the risk of injury during neuraxial anesthesia, especially in the absence of symptoms. Injuries can be caused by mechanical trauma from direct needle injury, hematoma or neurotoxicity from local anesthetics. Special attention should therefore be paid to frequent symptoms, such as a hairy nevus on the back, deformities of the feet or bladder and bowels, voiding and micturition dysfunction in order to reduce the risk of complications.

Concepts: Surgery, Anesthesia, Local anesthesia, Injury, Epidural, Caesarean section, Physical trauma, Local anesthetic

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Acute right heart failure is often overlooked as a cause of cardiopulmonary insufficiency. The various pathologies underlying right heart failure at the level of afterload, preload and contractility, make rapid, targeted diagnostics necessary. In addition to clinical symptoms and laboratory chemical parameters, echocardiography in particular is relevant for making a diagnosis. Symptomatic treatment of the endangered patient is essential. The focus is on a reduction of right ventricular pressure and afterload, a correction of systemic hypotension and positive inotropic support of the right ventricle. Mechanical organ replacement and support procedures are increasingly being used in the case of persistent right heart failure and expand the possibilities for treatment. Decisive for the prognosis is a causal treatment adapted to the underlying triggering disease.

Concepts: Medical terms, Cardiology, Heart, Symptom, Cardiovascular system, Right ventricle, Ventricle, Left ventricle