SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Der Anaesthesist

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Sevoflurane is one of the most widely used inhalation anesthetics in pediatric anesthesia. A large number of studies have demonstrated that repeated treatment with high concentrations or long durations of sevoflurane anesthesia during the neonatal period can induce neuroapoptosis and long-term learning disability. In clinical practice, we observed that a subset of patients underwent minor surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia more than once from birth to adolescence. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate whether a 2% concentration of sevoflurane (clinically relevant usage of sevoflurane) for 1 h (a short duration) can induce neuroapoptosis and neurocognitive dysfunction in adolescent rats that received sevoflurane (2% for 1 h) during the neonatal period.

Concepts: Time, Concentration, Educational psychology, Anesthesia, Adolescence, Developmental psychology, Puberty

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A previously healthy 60-year-old patient presented to the emergency department with severe headache, altered personality and fever. He was treated for bacterial meningitis with delirium of unknown cause but presumed to be due to alcohol withdrawal. Despite receiving the antibiotic therapy regimen recommended for bacterial meningitis the patient’s condition rapidly deteriorated with profound delirium and tachypnea. The intensivist who was consulted immediately suspected sepsis-associated organ failure and admitted the patient to the intensive care unit (ICU). The blood culture was positive for Listeria. After 10 days the patient could be discharged from the ICU and ultimately recovered completely. In patients presenting with unexplained delirium or altered personality the suspicion of septic encephalopathy should always be considered. They should be admitted to the ICU and sepsis treatment should be initiated without delay.

Concepts: Bacteria, Hospital, Lyme disease, Meningitis, Sepsis, Delirium tremens, Alcohol withdrawal syndrome, Headache

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MIGRATION OF AN AXILLARY PLEXUS CATHETER FRAGMENT INTO THE INTRACEREBRAL COMPARTMENT: During removal of an axillary plexus catheter used for pain therapy, the catheter was probably inadvertently and unnoticed severed together with the suture fixation. The error went unnoticed and an approximately 14 cm long catheter fragment remained in the patient. The patient complained of neck pain, nausea and vomiting 2.5 years later. A computed tomography scan of the cranium and neck region revealed a tubular foreign body with a diameter of ca. 1 mm and a length of ca. 14 cm. The foreign body was identified to be the sheared catheter fragment. In the meantime, the fragment had obviously migrated from the axilla into the intracranial compartment. The tip of the catheter was found at the ventral surface of the pons and surgical extraction was not possible. Following a futile intervention by the hospital’s liability insurance and despite evidence from an expert opinion for a gross treatment error, the patient took civil legal action against the hospital. A settlement was reached and the accused hospital committed itself to pay a compensation of 200,000 € plus any additional costs.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Nervous system, Brain, Patient, Neurology, Skull, English-language films, American films

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The subject of this article is the anatomy of the respiratory tract with an emphasis on the larynx. A differentiation is made between the upper and lower airways according to topographical and functional aspects, the limits of which are marked by the lower section of the larynx. The focus is on the anatomy of the structures involved, which are relevant for emergency medicine.

Concepts: Respiratory system

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Regarding survival and quality of life recent mass casualty incidents again emphasize the importance of early identification of the correct degree of injury/illness to enable prioritization of treatment amongst patients and their transportation to an appropriate hospital. The present study investigated existing triage algorithms in terms of sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) as well as its process duration in a relevant emergency patient cohort.

Concepts: Time, Patient, Life, Hospital, Quality, Physician, Paramedic, Mass-casualty incident

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The brachial plexus is commonly blocked at the interscalene level for shoulder and proximal humeral surgery. There are only a few publications about the interscalene technique in pediatric patients for a peripheral nerve block. Ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block has become increasingly more popular for pediatric patients because of high success rates and safety concerns. We used ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block in an 18-month-old child with an acute upper respiratory infection who had a supracondylar fracture of the humerus.

Concepts: Humerus, Shoulder, Brachial plexus

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Severe bleeding is a typical result of traumatic injuries. Hemorrhage is responsible for almost 50% of deaths within the first 6 h after trauma. Appropriate bleeding control and coagulation therapy depends on an integrated concept of local hemostasis by primary pressure with the hands, compression, and tourniquets accompanied by prevention of hypothermia, acidosis and hypocalcemia. Additionally, permissive hypotension is accepted for suitable patients and tranexamic acid should be administered early. Multiple publications prove that prehospital transfusion of blood products (e. g. red blood cells and plasma) and coagulation factors (e. g. fibrinogen) is feasible and safe, but only required for <5% of polytrauma patients in the civilian setting.

Concepts: Blood, Red blood cell, Coagulation, Platelet, Hematology, Hemostasis, Bleeding, Blood transfusion

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The life of an outstanding human being, a creative personality, will find the interest of posterity if he is acknowledged not only as a representative of his time but also decades later can be described as a formative character. This applies to Rudolf Frey who, like no other, has deeply influenced the development of German language anesthesiology after the Second World War. In the 1950s and 1960s as a visionary he already portrayed the four pillars of our discipline as the future field of work of anesthetists: anesthesiology, intensive care, emergency medicine and pain therapy. The authors take the anniversary of his 100th birthday as an occasion to recall Rudolf Frey’s extraordinary biography.

Concepts: Time, Human, Africa, Future, Germany, German language, Suffering, World War II

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Microsurgical procedures for construction of anastomoses present new challenges for anesthetists in the perioperative setting. Despite their increasing importance, so far no perioperative management guidelines for these patients existed. Anesthetists can influence the success of surgery (e. g. successful perfusion of a flap) via an optimal preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative approach. Patients should be carefully evaluated preoperatively for increased risks to avoid poor postoperative outcomes. Perioperatively, the choice of anesthetic procedure as well as the management of fluid infusion, blood glucose, temperature and blood transfusion are of great importance. Adequate analgesia as well as strict control should be performed as soon as possible postoperatively, preferably in a surveillance unit to detect and treat any complications as early as possible.

Concepts: Blood, Surgery, Blood sugar, Anesthesia, Liquid, Success, Blood transfusion, Anesthetic

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Regarding survival and quality of life, recent mass casualty incidents have once more emphasized the importance of early identification of the correct degree of injury or illness, to enable prioritizing treatment of patients and transportation to an appropriate hospital. The present study investigated international triage algorithms in terms of sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) as well as the process duration in a relevant emergency patient cohort.

Concepts: Time, Medical terms, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Illness, Paramedic, Mass-casualty incident