SciCombinator

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Journal: Der Anaesthesist

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Surgically induced fire is a life-threatening hazard; this topic has received little attention, although only 3 factors, the so-called fire triad, are needed for surgical fires to occur: an oxidizer, fuel and an ignition source. This systematic review aims to determine the impact of each component and to delegate every staff member an area of responsibility, thus ensuring patient health through prevention or protection. The trial was registered in Prospero CRD42018082656. A database search of eligible, preferably evidence-based studies was conducted. The Robins-I tool for assessing the risk of bias revealed a moderate risk of bias. Due to insufficient data, the main findings of these studies could not be summarized through a quantitative synthesis; therefore, a qualitative synthesis is outlined. The results are summarized according to the roles of the fire triad and discussed. (1) Role of the oxidizer: oxygen is the key component of the triad. Safe oxygen delivery is important. An oxygen-enriched environment (ORE) is caused by draping and is preferably prevented by suctioning. Fuel characteristics are affected by varying oxygen concentrations. (2) Role of the ignition source: electrocauterization is the most common ignition source, followed by lasers. Less common ignition sources include fiberoptic cables and preparative solutions, petrol or acetone. (3) Role of the fuel: surgical drapes are one of the most common fuels for surgical fires followed by the patient’s hair and skin. Skin preparation solutions are among the less common fuels. Many fire-resistant materials have been tested that do not remain fire resistant in ORE. It was concluded that the main problem is defining the real extent of this hazard. Exact numbers and exact condition protocols are needed; therefore, standardized registration of every fire and future studies with much evidence are needed. Immediate prevention consists of close attention to patient safety to prevent surgical fires from happening.

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Sepsis-induced changes in pharmacokinetic parameters are a well-known problem in intensive care medicine. Dosing of antibiotics in this setting is therefore challenging. Alterations to the substance-specific kinetics of anti-infective substances have an effect on the distribution and excretion processes in the body. Increased clearance and an increased distribution volume (Vd) and particularly compromized organ function with reduced antibiotic elimination are often encountered in patients with sepsis. Renal replacement treatment, which is frequently used in intensive care medicine, represents a substantial intervention in this system. Current international guidelines recommend individualized dosing strategies and adaptation of doses according to measured serum levels and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters as concepts to optimize anti-infective therapy in the critically ill. Likewise, the recommendation to adjust the administration form of beat-lactam antibiotics to prolonged or continuous infusion can be found increasingly more often in the literature. This article reviews the background of the individual dosing in intensive care patients and their applicability to the clinical routine.

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Palliative sedation (PS) serves as a therapeutic option in cases of otherwise intractable suffering. As the use of sedative and hypnotic medication in many diverse situations is a core competency of anesthesiology, anesthesiologists are confronted with questions of sedative therapy at the end of life in institutions for specialized palliative care, in intensive care units and intermediate care wards. In recent years a number of guidelines have been published internationally but so far no official guidelines exist in Germany. The most recognized document is the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) framework on PS. This project aims to develop a German language template for the preparation, application, documentation and evaluation of PS according to the current frameworks, especially the EAPC framework on PS.

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For cardiac surgery patients who were employed prior to surgery, the return to their professional life is of special importance. In addition to medical reasons, such as pre-existing conditions, the success of the operation or postoperative course and patient-intrinsic reasons, which can be assessed with the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale by Antonovsky, may also play a role in the question of a possible return into working life.

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The discovery of barbituric acid and research on its derivatives have long been of importance in advancements in modern anesthesia. Decades of clinical use of barbiturates worldwide and their abuse has led to an enormous amount of knowledge. Thiopental and methohexital are ultra-short acting derivatives of barbiturates. Their clinical application has been accompanied by an enormous increase in the knowledge of the pharmacology of cerebrally active drugs, in particular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor and GABA-induced effects on nerve cell membranes. Despite the development of newer substances, thiopental still has a firm place in clinical applications. Currently it is mainly used in obstetrics for induction of cesarean sections under general anesthesia. A disadvantage, when properly used to induce anesthesia, is usually only the prolonged elimination kinetics of barbiturates. It is beneficial that barbiturates do not require side effect provoking solubilizers.

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Correct positioning of a central venous catheter (CVC) tip in pediatric patients is very important. Malpositioning may lead to direct complications, such as arrhythmia and increase the risk of thrombosis, infections, valve failures or pericardial tamponade.

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The report describes the rare case of a periprocedural hemorrhage during percutaneous dilatation tracheotomy. In the final analysis, the innominate artery could be identified as the source of the hemorrhage. Particular attention must be paid to preprocedural evaluation of the puncture site and the procedure following unexpected hemorrhage. Continuation of the percutaneous tracheotomy, with only a clinical suspicion of a vascular injury while the bleeding source remained undetectable, seemed to be the most reasonable option. In this case the potentially life-threatening hemorrhage could be stopped and the elective treatment was completed. Therefore, because palpation of the neck cannot exclude life-threatening vascular aberrations with certainty, a preprocedural ultrasound examination of the anatomical features should be performed before carrying out a dilatation tracheotomy.

Concepts: Blood, Artery, Bleeding, English-language films, Brachiocephalic artery, The Final, Logic, Source

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Mortality in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains very high despite advances in resuscitation algorithms. Most of these patients die at the scene and do not reach hospital. It is currently the subject of discussion whether transport to hospital with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival and neurological outcome in patients with OHCA.

Concepts: Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Asystole

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The physiological state of a woman experiences multiple changes in the body during pregnancy. These alterations could be of particular importance in the medical care of pregnant women. This review article highlights the physiological developments of various organ systems throughout gestation with a focus on endocrinology, the cardiovascular system, hematology, the respiratory system and water balance.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Blood

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An update of the S3- guidelines for treatment of cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care unit, hemodynamic monitoring and cardiovascular system was published by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) in January 2018. This publication updates the guidelines from 2006 and 2011. The guidelines include nine sections that in addition to different methods of hemodynamic monitoring also reviews the topic of volume therapy as well as vasoactive and inotropic drugs. Furthermore, the guidelines also define the goals for cardiovascular treatment. This article describes the most important innovations of these comprehensive guidelines.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Blood, Heart, Physician, Illness, Circulatory system, Cardiovascular system