SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Der Anaesthesist

25

In 2015 the German Society for Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine (GTÜM) and the Swiss Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Society (SUHMS) published the updated guidelines on diving accidents 2014-2017. These multidisciplinary guidelines were developed within a structured consensus process by members of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI), the Sports Divers Association (VDST), the Naval Medical Institute (SchiffMedInst), the Social Accident Insurance Institution for the Building Trade (BG BAU), the Association of Hyperbaric Treatment Centers (VDD) and the Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM). This consensus-based guidelines project (development grade S2k) with a representative group of developers was conducted by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. It provides information and instructions according to up to date evidence to all divers and other lay persons for first aid recommendations to physician first responders and emergency physicians as well as paramedics and all physicians at therapeutic hyperbaric chambers for the diagnostics and treatment of diving accidents. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose and the following key action statements: on-site 100 % oxygen first aid treatment, still patient positioning and fluid administration are recommended. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) recompression remains unchanged the established treatment in severe cases with no therapeutic alternatives. The basic treatment scheme recommended for diving accidents is hyperbaric oxygenation at 280 kPa. For quality management purposes there is a need in the future for a nationwide register of hyperbaric therapy.

Concepts: Oxygen toxicity, Decompression sickness, Diving medicine, First aid, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Medicine, Oxygen, Hyperbaric medicine

23

The mortality of patients with sepsis and septic shock is still unacceptably high. An effective antibiotic treatment within 1 h of recognition of sepsis is an important target of sepsis treatment. Delays lead to an increase in mortality; therefore, structured treatment concepts form a rational foundation, taking relevant diagnostic and treatment steps into consideration. In addition to the assumed focus and individual risks of each patient, local resistance patterns and specific problem pathogens must be taken into account for selection of anti-infection treatment. Many pathophysiological alterations influence the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics during sepsis. The principle of standard dosing should be abandoned and replaced by an individual treatment approach with stronger weighting of the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) index of the substance groups. Although this is not yet the clinical standard, prolonged (or continuous) infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can help to achieve defined PK targets. Prolonged infusion is sufficient without TDM but for continuous infusion TDM is basically necessary. A further argument for individual PK/PD-oriented antibiotic approaches is the increasing number of infections due to multidrug resistant pathogens (MDR) in the intensive care unit. For effective treatment antibiotic stewardship teams (ABS team) are becoming more established. Interdisciplinary cooperation of the ABS team with infectiologists, microbiologists and clinical pharmacists leads not only to a rational administration of antibiotics but also has a positive influence on the outcome. The gold standards for pathogen detection are still culture-based detection and microbiological resistance testing for the various antibiotic groups. Despite the rapid investigation time, novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedures for pathogen identification and resistance determination, are currently only an adjunct to routine sepsis diagnostics due to the limited number of studies, high costs and limited availability. In complicated septic courses with multiple anti-infective treatment or recurrent sepsis, PCR-based procedures can be used in addition to therapy monitoring and diagnostics. Novel antibiotics represent potent alternatives in the treatment of MDR infections. Due to the often defined spectrum of pathogens and the practically absent resistance, they are suitable for targeted treatment of severe MDR infections (therapy escalation).

Concepts: Antibiotic resistance, Beta-lactam antibiotic, Intensive care medicine, Microbiology, Penicillin, Antibiotic, Sepsis, Bacteria

23

The application of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is gaining more and more importance in daily clinical practice. The use of IONM allows the localization of neural structures and to control functioning of the peripheral and central nervous systems in anesthetized patients. This enables surgeons to identify and to protect neural structures and cerebral areas. The use of IONM also enables anesthesiologists to adjust anesthesia and cardiopulmonary therapy to the individual needs of the patient. Thereby, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium and the incidence of postoperative cognitive deficits. To exploit the full potential anesthesiologists and surgeons must be able to use the methods of IONM safely and understand the results; therefore, basic knowledge of the technology, options and limitations of IONM is necessary. It is also important to be aware of the influence of anesthetics on the methods of IONM. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is the anesthetic method of choice, because it has only minimal influence on IONM methods. It is important to avoid bolus injections of hypnotics to achieve stable blood concentrations. Long- acting neuromuscular blocking agents should be avoided, because they disturb the signals of electromyography and motor-evoked potentials. By using IONM anesthesiologists and surgeons can identify changes in the function of the peripheral and central nervous system prior to irreversible damage.

Concepts: Anesthetic, Psychology, Neuroscience, Brain, Surgery, Anesthesia, Central nervous system, Nervous system

0

A myriad of publications have contributed to an evidence-based approach to airway management in emergency services and admissions in recent years; however, it remains unclear which international registries on airway management in emergency medicine currently exist and how they are characterized concerning inclusion criteria, patient characteristics and definition of complications.

0

The intensity of postoperative pain is characterized by large interindividual variability. Furthermore, strong postoperative pain is known to influence physical recovery after surgery. High (preoperative) pain expectation and pre-existing pain, which are associated with pain-related disability (impairing pain) are risk factors for strong postoperative pain. They can be determined with the Lübeck Pain Risk Questionnaire used for the first time in this study. The aim of this study was to explore the hypothesis that patients with a combination of the characteristics (1) preoperative impairing pain and (2) high pain expectation are more likely to have strong postoperative pain. Patients with these characteristics represent a unique group of patients and are more likely to develop distinct postoperative pain and can therefore be characterized as a risk group.

0

It is mandatory for hospitals in Germany to employ infection control physicians and have an external consultation. The recommended coverage has substantially increased in the last years. Typically, infection control physicians are specialists for hygiene and environmental medicine and/or for microbiology. As there is already a shortage of these specialists, a curricular educational program in infection control was developed by the German Medical Association in 2011. This program addresses specialists of different clinical disciplines. It covers a period of 24 months and includes 200 h of courses, divided into 6 modules. In addition, 7 weeks of internships must be absolved in hospital hygiene, in a microbiological laboratory and in the public health service. During the program, the trainee must be accompanied by a qualified supervisor, who is a specialist in hygiene. The aim of this article is to describe the current status of this program.

0

One of the main tasks in every anesthetist’s routine clinical practice is securing the airway. This also includes techniques for lung isolation and one-lung ventilation in thoracic surgery and in intensive care medicine. The anesthesiologist has various methods available to achieve one-lung ventilation. This article presents the most commonly used methods for lung isolation. These include the double lumen tube, the bronchus blockers by Arndt and Cohen, the EZ blocker, the Uniblocker, the Univent tube and the VivaSight-DL™. The effects of the one-lung ventilation are not described in detail and for this the reader should refer to the appropriate literature. This article is intended to provide an overview of the various possibilities for lung separation, especially for physicians in continued medical education and also for physicians who rarely use these procedures.

0

Ketamine and midazolam form the endpoint of a series of articles about intravenous induction of anesthesia . Both substances can be used as single induction hypnotic drugs; however, in practice, this is unusual. Both substances, with the exception of a few very specific indications and clinical situations, are more frequently used in combination or with one of the more common alternatives propofol, barbiturates and etomidate. The reasons are the activity and side effects of both substances and their positive characteristics are used more as a supplement. In the concluding comparison the five discussed induction hypnotics are judged against each other. The use in certain clinical constellations and in special patient populations is evaluated individually for each substance. It is highlighted which drug appears most appropriate in which situation. As methohexital is nowadays only administered in very few clinical situations, this substance is not included in the comparative assessment.

0

Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) may be considered as a rescue attempt for highly selected patients with refractory cardiac arrest and potentially reversible etiology. Currently there are no randomized, controlled studies on eCPR, and valid predictors of benefit and outcome which might guide the indication for eCPR are lacking. Currently selection criteria and procedures differ across hospitals and standardized algorithms are lacking. Based on expert opinion, the present consensus statement provides a proposal for a standardized treatment algorithm for eCPR.

0

Induction of general anesthesia in patients with risk for aspiration needs special considerations to avoid the incidence and severity of complications. Since no evidence-based guidelines support the challenge for anesthesiologists various practical recommendations exist in clinical practice for rapid sequence induction and intubation (RSI). The aim of this systematic review is, to summarize the evidence and recommend a decision making process.