SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Der Anaesthesist

25

In 2015 the German Society for Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine (GTÜM) and the Swiss Underwater and Hyperbaric Medical Society (SUHMS) published the updated guidelines on diving accidents 2014-2017. These multidisciplinary guidelines were developed within a structured consensus process by members of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI), the Sports Divers Association (VDST), the Naval Medical Institute (SchiffMedInst), the Social Accident Insurance Institution for the Building Trade (BG BAU), the Association of Hyperbaric Treatment Centers (VDD) and the Society of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (DGAUM). This consensus-based guidelines project (development grade S2k) with a representative group of developers was conducted by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany. It provides information and instructions according to up to date evidence to all divers and other lay persons for first aid recommendations to physician first responders and emergency physicians as well as paramedics and all physicians at therapeutic hyperbaric chambers for the diagnostics and treatment of diving accidents. To assist in implementing the guideline recommendations, this article summarizes the rationale, purpose and the following key action statements: on-site 100 % oxygen first aid treatment, still patient positioning and fluid administration are recommended. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) recompression remains unchanged the established treatment in severe cases with no therapeutic alternatives. The basic treatment scheme recommended for diving accidents is hyperbaric oxygenation at 280 kPa. For quality management purposes there is a need in the future for a nationwide register of hyperbaric therapy.

Concepts: Oxygen toxicity, Decompression sickness, Diving medicine, First aid, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Medicine, Oxygen, Hyperbaric medicine

23

The mortality of patients with sepsis and septic shock is still unacceptably high. An effective antibiotic treatment within 1 h of recognition of sepsis is an important target of sepsis treatment. Delays lead to an increase in mortality; therefore, structured treatment concepts form a rational foundation, taking relevant diagnostic and treatment steps into consideration. In addition to the assumed focus and individual risks of each patient, local resistance patterns and specific problem pathogens must be taken into account for selection of anti-infection treatment. Many pathophysiological alterations influence the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics during sepsis. The principle of standard dosing should be abandoned and replaced by an individual treatment approach with stronger weighting of the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) index of the substance groups. Although this is not yet the clinical standard, prolonged (or continuous) infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can help to achieve defined PK targets. Prolonged infusion is sufficient without TDM but for continuous infusion TDM is basically necessary. A further argument for individual PK/PD-oriented antibiotic approaches is the increasing number of infections due to multidrug resistant pathogens (MDR) in the intensive care unit. For effective treatment antibiotic stewardship teams (ABS team) are becoming more established. Interdisciplinary cooperation of the ABS team with infectiologists, microbiologists and clinical pharmacists leads not only to a rational administration of antibiotics but also has a positive influence on the outcome. The gold standards for pathogen detection are still culture-based detection and microbiological resistance testing for the various antibiotic groups. Despite the rapid investigation time, novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based procedures for pathogen identification and resistance determination, are currently only an adjunct to routine sepsis diagnostics due to the limited number of studies, high costs and limited availability. In complicated septic courses with multiple anti-infective treatment or recurrent sepsis, PCR-based procedures can be used in addition to therapy monitoring and diagnostics. Novel antibiotics represent potent alternatives in the treatment of MDR infections. Due to the often defined spectrum of pathogens and the practically absent resistance, they are suitable for targeted treatment of severe MDR infections (therapy escalation).

Concepts: Antibiotic resistance, Beta-lactam antibiotic, Intensive care medicine, Microbiology, Penicillin, Antibiotic, Sepsis, Bacteria

23

The application of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) is gaining more and more importance in daily clinical practice. The use of IONM allows the localization of neural structures and to control functioning of the peripheral and central nervous systems in anesthetized patients. This enables surgeons to identify and to protect neural structures and cerebral areas. The use of IONM also enables anesthesiologists to adjust anesthesia and cardiopulmonary therapy to the individual needs of the patient. Thereby, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium and the incidence of postoperative cognitive deficits. To exploit the full potential anesthesiologists and surgeons must be able to use the methods of IONM safely and understand the results; therefore, basic knowledge of the technology, options and limitations of IONM is necessary. It is also important to be aware of the influence of anesthetics on the methods of IONM. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is the anesthetic method of choice, because it has only minimal influence on IONM methods. It is important to avoid bolus injections of hypnotics to achieve stable blood concentrations. Long- acting neuromuscular blocking agents should be avoided, because they disturb the signals of electromyography and motor-evoked potentials. By using IONM anesthesiologists and surgeons can identify changes in the function of the peripheral and central nervous system prior to irreversible damage.

Concepts: Anesthetic, Psychology, Neuroscience, Brain, Surgery, Anesthesia, Central nervous system, Nervous system

1

In naturally occurring numbers the frequencies of digits 1-9 in the leading position are counterintuitively distributed because the frequencies of occurrence are unequal. Benford-Newcomb’s law describes the expected distribution of these frequencies. It was previously shown that known fraudulent articles consistently violated this law.

Concepts: Mathematics, Computer program, Benford's law, Distribution, Epistemology, Scientific method

0

The term “shock” refers to a life-threatening circulatory failure caused by an imbalance between the supply and demand of cellular oxygen. Hypovolemic shock is characterized by a reduction of intravascular volume and a subsequent reduction in preload. The body compensates the loss of volume by increasing the stroke volume, heart frequency, oxygen extraction rate, and later by an increased concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate with a rightward shift of the oxygen dissociation curve. Hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock impairs the macrocirculation and microcirculation and therefore affects many organ systems (e.g. kidneys, endocrine system and endothelium). For further identification of a state of shock caused by bleeding, vital functions, coagulation tests and hematopoietic procedures are implemented. Every hospital should be in possession of a specific protocol for massive transfusions. The differentiated systemic treatment of bleeding consists of maintenance of an adequate homeostasis and the administration of blood products and coagulation factors.

Concepts: Shock, Exsanguination, Endothelium, Bleeding, Coagulation, Hypovolemia, Heart, Blood

0

Catecholamine crises associated with pheochromocytoma may cause life-threatening cardiovascular conditions. We report the case of a 75-year-old male who developed a hypertensive crisis during induction of general anesthesia for elective resection of a cervical neuroma due to an undiagnosed pheochromocytoma. Hemodynamic instability occurred immediately after the injection of fentanyl, propofol and rocuronium, prior to laryngoscopy and in the absence of any manipulation of the abdomen. In this case report, we present the management of this incident and discuss the underlying pathophysiology triggering a catecholamine crisis.

Concepts: Logic, Epinephrine, Pheochromocytoma, Hypertension

0

In an analysis of a critical incident reporting system (CIRS) in out-of-hospital emergency medicine, it was demonstrated that in 30% of cases deficient communication led to a threat to patients; however, the analysis did not show what exactly the most dangerous work processes are. Current research shows the impact of poor communication on patient safety.

Concepts: Hospital, Safety, Emergency physician, Medical emergency, Physician, Emergency medical services, Emergency medicine, Patient

0

Pain is the major determinant factor which affects the quality of recovery and postoperative agitation following nasal surgery with the patient under general anesthesia. Our objectives were to test the hypothesis that an external nasal nerve block will decrease pain intensity, decrease drug consumption, decrease the incidence of postoperative emergence agitation and improve quality of recovery.

Concepts: External nasal nerve, Major, The Canon of Medicine, Opioid, Nerves, Anesthesia

0

Predicting and managing the difficult airway is a lifesaving and vital basic task for the anesthetist. Current guidelines of all important societies include thyromental distance (TMD, “Patil”) as a possible predictor for a difficult airway and includes two important aspects for airway management: the mandibular space and the flexibility of the cervical spine. We evaluated knowledge and execution regarding TMD for predicting a difficult airway on participants at the Euroanaesthesia (ESA) congress and German Anaesthesia Congress (DAC) in 2014. Our evaluation consisted of a theoretical part with questions regarding general knowledge and a practical evaluation with anesthetists performing on a human airway model. Practical evaluations were performed separately from other participants. During the DAC 245 (ESA 230) physicians participated, of which 64% were male (ESA 58%). At the DAC 182 (74.3%) and ESA 82 (35.6%) participants knew about Patil/TMD. Its use as a predictive score for a difficult airway was known by 122 (49.8%; DAC) and 79 (34.4%; ESA) participants. The correct definition for intubation was given by 45 (25.7%) at the DAC and 56 (24.3%) at ESA. Only 40-41% of the participants measured the correct distance for TMD. Only 6.1-6.5% completed both the theoretical and practical parts correctly. As non-invasive TMD includes two different aspects of patient airways and is part of current guidelines, education and training must be extended to assure adequate evaluation in the future.

Concepts: Cervical vertebrae, Performance, Future, Surgery, Endotracheal tube, Oropharyngeal airway, Scientific method, Anesthesia

0

The mortality of patients with sepsis and septic shock is still unacceptably high. An effective calculated antibiotic treatment within 1 h of recognition of sepsis is an important target of sepsis treatment. Delays lead to an increase in mortality; therefore, structured treatment concepts form a rational foundation, taking relevant diagnostic and treatment steps into consideration. In addition to the assumed infection and individual risks of each patient, local resistance patterns and specific problem pathogens must be taken into account during the selection of anti-infective treatment. Many pathophysiologic alterations influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of antibiotics during sepsis. The principle of standard dosing should be abandoned and replaced by an individual treatment approach with stronger weighting of the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) index of the substance groups. Although this is not yet the clinical standard, prolonged (or continuous) infusion of β‑lactam antibiotics and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can help to achieve defined PK targets. Prolonged infusion is sufficient without TDM, but for continuous infusion, TDM is generally necessary. A further argument for individual PK/PD-oriented antibiotic approaches is the increasing number of infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in the intensive care unit. For effective treatment, antibiotic stewardship teams (ABS teams) are becoming more established. Interdisciplinary cooperation of the ABS team with infectious disease (ID) specialists, microbiologists, and clinical pharmacists leads not only to rational administration of antibiotics, but also has a positive influence on treatment outcome. The gold standards for pathogen identification are still culture-based detection and microbiologic resistance testing for the various antibiotic groups. Despite the rapid investigation time, novel polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-based procedures for pathogen identification and resistance determination are currently only an adjunct to routine sepsis diagnostics, due to the limited number of studies, high costs, and limited availability. In complicated septic courses with multiple anti-infective therapies or recurrent sepsis, PCR-based procedures can be used in addition to treatment monitoring and diagnostics. Novel antibiotics represent potent alternatives in the treatment of MDR infections. Due to the often defined spectrum of pathogens and the practically (still) absent resistance, they are suitable for targeted treatment of severe MDR infections (therapy escalation). (Contribution available free of charge by “Free Access” [ https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00101-017-0396-z ].).

Concepts: Septic shock, Intensive care medicine, Microbiology, Infectious disease, Infection, Antibiotic, Sepsis, Bacteria