SciCombinator

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Journal: Dentistry journal

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The ability of remineralizing agents to improve the color of white spot lesions (WSL) is an important aspect that should be investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 0.05% amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions, as well as artificial saliva on the color improvement of white spot lesions (WSLs). In this in vitro study, 50 human premolar teeth were randomly classified into five groups. At baseline, all the samples were assessed by using a colorimeter (E0). Then, white spot lesions were induced on the surface of the teeth by means of a pH-cycling model, and the colorimeter was used again (E1). Afterwards, samples of the 1st and 2nd groups were kept in 0.05% ACP and 0.5% ACP solutions for 1 min/day, respectively. The 3rd group specimens were placed in 0.05% fluoride solution for 1 min/day. The other two groups were kept in artificial saliva and distilled in water separately. All the samples were assessed by the colorimeter for a third time (E2). We found no significant difference between the groups in ∆E1. There was also no significant difference among 0.05% ACP solution, 0.5% ACP solution, 0.05% fluoride solution, and artificial saliva considering ∆E2. However, a significant difference was noted between the above-mentioned solutions and distilled water in ∆E2. With respect to ∆E3, there were considerable differences between ACP solution and artificial saliva. The same results were obtained for the difference between fluoride solution and artificial saliva. However, no significant difference was found among 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP, and 0.05% fluoride solutions in terms of ∆E3. In Conclusion, ACP is as effective as fluoride in the color improvement of WSLs and the recommended treatment for this purpose is daily use of 0.05% ACP, 0.5% ACP or 0.05% fluoride solutions.

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Aim: To assess the failure rates of various pediatric dental treatments performed under general anesthesia (GA) after six months to five years of follow-up. Design: This multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed on patients treated by five pedodontists in two private hospitals located in northern Iran during 2010⁻2013 and comprised 155 patients. The patients were recalled and clinically examined. During the clinical examination of the primary teeth, oral hygiene, dmft index, and failure of previous treatments was evaluated. The data were analyzed using the Chi square and regression analyses with a significance level of 0.05. Results: 114 patients (74 males and 40 females, mean age: 37.17 ± 10.75 months) with 1155 primary teeth treated under GA participated in the follow-up. The overall failure rate was 6.59%. The failure rates of pulpectomy, pulopotomy, fissure sealant, stainless steel crown (SSC), amalgam, and composite fillings were 2.90%, 3.03%, 4.83%, 5.26%, 5.33%, and 9.63%, respectively. Among the confounding factors, only gender had a significant effect on the anterior composite failure rate (p = 0.029) and age had a significant effect on the failure rate of fissure sealant therapy (p = 0.015) and SSC (p = 0.018). Conclusion: The overall rate of treatment failure in pediatric patients, treated under GA, was 6.59%.

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Currently, there is minimal clinical data regarding biofilm composition on the surface of denture bases and the clinical tissue compatibility. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to compare the bacterial colonization and the tissue compatibility of a hypoallergenic polyamide with a frequently used PMMA resin tested intraorally in a randomized split-mouth design. Test specimens made of polyamide (n = 10) and PMMA (n = 10) were attached over a molar band appliance in oral cavity of 10 subjects. A cytological smear test was done from palatal mucosa at baseline and after four weeks. The monolayers were inspected for micronuclei. After four weeks in situ, the appliance was removed. The test specimens were immediately cultivated on non-selective and selective nutrient media. All growing colonies were identified using VITEK-MS. The anonymized results were analyzed descriptively. A total of 110 different bacterial species could be isolated, including putative pathogens. An average of 17.8 different bacterial species grew on the PMMA specimens, and 17.3 on the polyamide specimens. The highest number of different bacterial species was n = 24, found on a PMMA specimen. On the two specimens, a similar bacterial distribution was observed. Micronuclei, as a marker for genotoxic potential of dental materials, were not detected. This study indicates that the composition of bacterial biofilm developed on these resins after four weeks is not influenced by the type of resin itself. The two materials showed no cytological differences. This investigation suggests that polyamide and PMMA are suitable for clinical use as denture base material.

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Tooth extraction causes vertical and horizontal alveolar bone loss and consequent remodeling. Several methods have been introduced in terms of so-called “ridge preservation” techniques, which mostly resemble guided bone regenerative (GBR) procedures using filler materials and membranes in order to stabilize the respective sites. This conceptual case report describes a novel approach using a degradable polylactic acid membrane covered with a collagen matrix, which aims to reshape the resorbed alveolar wall and thereby to stabilize the soft tissues during matrix formation and socket mineralization. Clinical re-entry, radiographic (CBCT) and histologic evaluation proved adequate for osteoneogenesis despite an unfavorable initial situation: An implant could be ideally placed, which was circumferentially covered by bone. This minimally invasive method could offer a new method to approach socket preservation without using filler materials and coverage of the socket entrance. However, more controlled research on this topic is needed.

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For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in phagocytosis, complement fixation, and opsonization. Th2 cells are thought to have evolved as a form of protection against parasitic helminthes. Th17 subset of CD4Not Necessary+ T cells was identified in the year 2005, which added greater complexity to Th function and are pro inflammatory in nature. Interleukins (ILs) have the ability to alter immunological changes and they also possess the ability to regulate lymphocyte differentiation and haemopoietic stem cells, cell proliferation, and motility, which are classified as pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. There are numerous studies that reported IL-17 levels associated with chronic periodontitis (CP) development. Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a risk factor for the development of periodontal diseases because the incidence, progression, and severity of periodontal diseases are more common with Type II DM than without DM. This study was aimed at evaluating whether non-surgical periodontal therapy had any effect on plasma concentrations of Interleukin-17 in systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients and in chronic periodontitis patients with well controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus. Patients were divided into the two groups including the chronic periodontitis group (20 subjects) and the chronic periodontitis with well-controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus group (20 subjects). The Gingival Index and Plaque Index as well as the clinical Attachment Level (CAL) were taken from all the patients of two groups after evaluating fasting blood sugar, post prandial blood sugar, and the Glycated Hemoglobin Level (HbA1c). Then 5 mL blood samples were collected from each patient and plasma was separated and the IL-17 level is evaluated using the ELISA method. Then, as part of phase I periodontal therapy, scaling and root planning was performed. Patients were recalled after one month and clinical and biochemical parameters were reevaluated. Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in a reduction of plasma levels of IL-17 in chronic periodontitis patients with and without well controlled Type II Diabetes mellitus.

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Even in the 21st century, dental caries is considered a global burden, severely upsetting the health and quality of life of those affected. Apart from the usage of fluoride and regular oral hygiene, one of the most important prophylactic approaches against the occurrence of caries is the sealing of pits and fissures. However, the rapid progress of new materials and applications for sealing pits and fissures also raises new questions about their correct application. Recent literature on pit and fissure sealing, caries prevention, as well as caries risk assessment for both children and adults was reviewed. This report provides a general overview of pit and fissure sealing, the materials used for sealing occlusal surfaces, as well as indications and possible side effects. The conclusions are that sealing pit and fissures of primary and permanent teeth is an effective method for preventing and arresting caries. However, regular checkups must be conducted to avoid advanced tooth decay attributable to leakages in the sealing.

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Background: Minorities' Diminished Return theory is defined as the relative disadvantage of minority populations compared to Whites regarding health gains that follow socioeconomic status (SES). To test whether Minorities' Diminished Return theory holds for unmet dental care needs (DCN), we investigated Black-White differences in the effects of family income on unmet DCN among children. Methods: Data from the National Survey of Children’s Health were used. Participants were either White or Black children age 1 to 18. Family income-to-needs ratio was the independent variable. Unmet DCN was the dependent variable. Covariates included age, gender, and parental educational attainment. Race was the focal moderator. We ran logistic regression for data analysis. Results: Higher income-to-needs ratio was associated with lower risk of unmet DCN in the pooled sample. We found an interaction between race and family income-to-needs ratio on unmet DCN, suggesting a stronger protective effect for Whites than Blacks. Conclusion: Minorities' Diminished Return also holds for the effects of family income-to-needs ratio on unmet DCN. The relative disadvantage of Blacks compared to Whites in gaining oral health from their SES may reflect structural racism that systemically hinders Black families. There is a need for additional research on specific societal barriers that bound Blacks' oral health gain from their SES resources such as income. Policies and programs should also help Black families to leverage their SES resources.

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The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries and periodontal diseases among 14⁻19-year-old schoolchildren with limited access to dental care services. A cross sectional study design was conducted during field visits to seven governmental schools in Al-Khomrah district, South Jeddah, over the period from September 2015 to May 2016. Clinical examinations and administered questionnaires were carried out in mobile dental clinics. The dentists carried out oral examinations using the dental caries index (DMFT), the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), and the community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20. A total of 734 schoolchildren were examined. The prevalence of decayed teeth was 79.7% and was significantly higher among boys (88.9%) than girls (69.0%). About 11% of students had missing teeth, with a significantly higher figure among females than males (15.9% versus 7.3%); 19.8% of students had filled teeth. Moreover, a DMFT of seven or more was significantly more prevalent among males (43.3%) than females (26.8%), while the percentage of females with sound teeth was significantly higher than for males (20.4% and 9.6% respectively). The CPITN revealed 0, 1 and 2 scores among 14.6%, 78.2%, and 41.6% respectively. Males had a significantly higher percentage of healthy periodontal condition (23.8%) than females (3.8%). Dental caries prevalence was moderate to high, calculus and gingival bleeding were widespread among schoolchildren, and were more prevalent among students with low socioeconomic status.

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Three-dimensional (3D) images could provide more accurate evaluation for facial attractiveness than two-dimensional (2D) images. The 3D facial image could be simplified into gray scale 3D contour lines. Whether female facial attractiveness could be perceived in these simplified 3D facial contour lines should be determined.

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Understanding microbiology, specifically biofilm biology is an essential component of creating targeted therapeutic modalities that are effective and efficient.[…].