SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Dentistry journal

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The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance. Dysbiosis occurs due to many confounding factors that predispose a shift in the composition and relative abundance of microbial communities. Dysbiotic communities have been a major cause for many microbiome related systemic infections. Such dysbiosis is directed by certain important pathogens called the “keystone pathogens”, which can modulate community microbiome variations. One such persistent infection is oral infection, mainly periodontitis, where a wide array of causal organisms have been implied to systemic infections such as cardio vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The keystone pathogens co-occur with many yet-cultivable bacteria and their interactions lead to dysbiosis. This has been the focus of recent research. While immune evasion is one of the major modes that leads to dysbiosis, new processes and new virulence factors of bacteria have been shown to be involved in this important process that determines a disease or health state. This review focuses on such dysbiotic communities, their interactions, and their virulence factors that predispose the host to other systemic implications.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Archaea, Disease, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Microbiology, Infection

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of visual examination (International Caries Detection and Assessment System-ICDAS II), light-emitting diodes (LED) fluorescence (SPECTRA), laser fluorescence (DIAGNODent, DD), photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM, The Canary System, CS) to detect natural decay beneath resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC) and compomer restorations in vitro. Twenty-seven extracted human molars and premolars, consisting of 2 control teeth, 10 visually healthy/sound and 15 teeth with natural cavitated lesions, were selected. For the carious teeth, caries was removed leaving some carious tissue on one wall of the preparation. For the sound teeth, 3 mm deep cavity preparations were made. All cavities were restored with RMGIC or compomer restorative materials. Sixty-eight sites (4 sites on sound unrestored teeth, 21 sound sites and 43 carious sites with restorations) were selected. CS and DD triplicate measurements were done at 2, 1.5, 0.5, and 0 mm away from the margin of the restoration (MOR). SPECTRA images were taken, and two dentists provided ICDAS II scoring for the restored surfaces. The SPECTRA data and images were inconclusive due to signal interference from the restorations. Visual examinations of the restored tooth surfaces were able to identify 5 of the 15 teeth with caries. In these situations, the teeth were ranked as having ICDAS II 1 or 2 rankings, but they could not identify the location of the caries or depth of the lesion. CS and DD were able to differentiate between sound and carious tissue at the MOR, but larger variation in measurement, and poorer accuracy, was observed for DD. It was concluded that the CS has the potential to detect secondary caries around RMGIC and compomer restorations more accurately than the other modalities used in this study.

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The recent randomized trial, published by Raje et al., on Lancet Oncology is potentially practice changing. It proposes that denosumab is a valid alternative to zoledronic acid in the treatment of myeloma patients. However, several points need further data and more details, such as information on incidence, diagnosis, and follow-up of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) cases, observed among treated patients. Adopted definition to adjudicate ONJ cases, type of registration of potential ONJ cases, length of observation are possible causes of potential underestimation of ONJ incidence in their study. Future updated evaluations with longer follow-up, and including actuarial estimation, are required for final judgment on ONJ risk in myeloma patients receiving denosumab, and comparison with ONJ risk by zoledronic acid.

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Implant dentistry is a growing field in the education of undergraduate dental students. The present laboratory study evaluates factors which may potentially influence the accuracy of free-hand implant insertion and the use of an orientation template. After three-dimensional planning using coDiagnostiXTM, orientation templates, including sleeves for the pilot-drill in regions 41 and 45, were manufactured by thermoforming. Sixty-one fifth year dental students inserted one implant using the orientation template and another implant free-hand in an artificial mandible. Information regarding age, sex, handedness, education, and the time required for implant insertion were recorded. Subsequently, the mandibles were scanned using cone-beam-computed tomography and the accuracy of the implant position was assessed, while statistical analysis followed. The free-hand implant insertion resulted in a distal deviation of -1.34 ± 5.15° and a mesial mismatch of 0.06 ± 0.79 mm at the artificial bone level compared to the sleeves. When using the orientation templates, the deviation decreased to -0.67 ± 3.48° and a distal mismatch of -0.22 ± 0.62 mm was achieved. The difference was statistically significant for the mismatch (p < 0.049). Regarding the limitations of our study, it could be said that the accuracy level achieved by dental undergraduates using implant placement with orientation templates is comparable to that in other studies.

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This study investigated which preparation strategy for root canals leads to the best technical preparation quality, and moreover, which is perceived to be performed best by novice students. Sixty-four students were recruited to prepare one simulated root canal with each of the following: FlexMaster files (F), Mtwo files (M), and Reciproc files ®. After preparation, the students assessed the different instrument systems through a questionnaire. The technical quality of the root canal preparations was evaluated by the centering ratio of the preparation. A total of 186 prepared root canals were submitted for evaluation. With R, significantly better centered preparations were achieved when compared to M and F (p < 0.001). The students evaluated R faster than M and F, and evaluated F significantly (p < 0.05) slower than R and M. M was rated as the easiest system to learn and to handle, as well as the best at reaching the working length; therefore, it was evaluated as the overall favorite of the students. A difference was found between the students' perceptions and their achieved technical quality of root canal preparations.

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The purpose of this study was to determine dental practitioners' opinions, techniques, and materials used for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) in Saudi Arabia. A comprehensive nationwide survey regarding treatment strategies of ETT, on the post types and material used for core foundations were distributed either by email or by hard copies to general dentists in different parts of Saudi Arabia (North, South, West, East, and Center). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the responses to the questions. A total of 164 participants were included in the survey: 72.6% of them were male, and 27.4% were female. 42.1% of the participants were Saudi dental practitioners, whereas 57.9% were non-Saudi dental practitioners. Out of the surveyed dentists, 52% consider post placement for almost every post-endodontic restoration of ETT. The majority of the dentists (54%) believe that a post strengthens ETT. Cast posts and cores were used by 55% of all the dentists, whereas 34% used prefabricated posts exclusively. Screw posts were the most popular prefabricated post type (47%). Composite resin (51%) was preferred for the core foundation, followed by glass ionomer cements (GICs) (26%). Amalgam was seldom used (0.5%). Posts were placed primarily with zinc phosphate cement (51%), followed by GIC (38%). Within the limitations of this survey-based investigation among dental practitioners in Saudi Arabia, it was concluded that the treatment strategies of ETT are in accordance with the current state of evidence-based knowledge.

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This study compared the effects of a conventional endodontic needle with an agitation system on a novel tricalcium silicate-based sealer (NTS) in terms of dentinal tubule penetration and interfacial adaptation to a root canal. Fifty single-rooted, recently-extracted human maxillary central incisors were randomly distributed into two homogeneous groups characterized by two different final cleansing systems: Conventional endodontic needle, or EndoActivator®. After instrumentation, all the teeth were filled with the gutta-percha single cone technique in conjunction with the novel tricalcium silicate-based sealer. Teeth were horizontally sectioned at 1 and 5 mm from the apex and were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) at five magnifications. The maximum, mean, and the circumferential percentage of the sealer penetration inside the tubules were measured. Moreover, the gap width was evaluated using Image J software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). EndoActivator® did not result in a significantly higher circumferential percentage of sealer penetration than conventional irrigation (p > 0.05). However, the gap width was significantly lower with EndoActivator®, compared to conventional needles at both 1 mm (p = 0.035) and 5 mm (p = 0.038). The EndoActivator® irrigation system did not significantly improve the NTS penetration, as compared to the conventional endodontic needle irrigation. Activation of the irrigation reduced the gap width significantly.

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Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) involve the presence of pain or dysfunction on certain areas of the Cranio-Cervico-Mandibular Complex (CCMC), such as the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and associated structures like the postural muscles of the cervical region, can be considered as a sub-group of musculoskeletal disorders. Wind instrument players, as a consequence of their musical performance and its relation with the CCMC, can develop a TMD associated to muscle hyperactivity of certain elevator muscles, or even an increase of the intra-articular pressure in the functioning of the TMJ throughout musical activity.

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The aim of this study was to test the effect of adding chicken eggshell powder (CESP) to conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) on its mechanical properties, and fluoride and calcium release. CESP was added with proportions of 3% and 5% by weight to the powder component of conventional glass-ionomer cement. The specimens were categorized into group A: GIC without CESP; group B: GIC with 3% wt. CESP; and group C: GIC with 5% wt. CESP; there were 12 specimens in each group. Groups B and C showed higher compressive strength values compared to group A. However, microhardness scores were higher in group C compared to groups A and B. As for ion-release results, group B displayed the highest values of fluoride release followed by group C at both 7 and 30 days. Group C showed the highest amount of calcium release followed by both groups B and C at 7 days, while at 30 days, groups A and B showed higher calcium release compared to group C. The mechanical properties of conventional glass-ionomer restorative material were enhanced by the addition of CESP. Moreover, fluoride and calcium release were not compromised by adding CESP.

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Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is the main etiological bacteria present in the oral cavity that leads to dental caries. All of the S. mutans in the oral cavity form biofilms that adhere to the surfaces of teeth. Dental caries are infections facilitated by the development of biofilm. An esterified derivative of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate-stearate (EGCG-S), was used in this study to assess its ability to inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. mutans. The effect of EGCG-S on bacterial growth was evaluated with colony forming units (CFU) and log reduction; biofilm formation was qualitatively determined by Congo red assay, and quantitatively determined by crystal violet assay, fluorescence-based LIVE/DEAD assays to study the cell viability, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological changes. The results indicated that EGCG-S was able to completely inhibit growth and biofilm formation at concentrations of 250 µg/mL. Its effectiveness was also compared with a commonly prescribed mouthwash in the United States, chlorhexidine gluconate. EGCG-S was shown to be equally effective in reducing S. mutans growth as chlorhexidine gluconate. In conclusion, EGCG-S is potentially an anticariogenic agent by reducing bacterial presence in the oral cavity.