SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Dentistry journal

3

Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common enamel condition, presenting with incisor opacities, which may be of psychosocial concern to children. This clinical study sought to determine whether minimally invasive treatment, aiming to improve incisor aesthetics, would also improve children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). 111 MIH patients, aged 7⁻16 years, referred to a UK Dental Hospital, were invited to complete the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (C-OHIP-SF19) prior to any intervention (T₀) and again at one-month following the intervention (T₁) for MIH. Treatment regimens included one or more of the following: Microabrasion; resin infiltration; tooth whitening; resin composite restoration. Data were obtained for 93 children with a mean age of 11 years. Mean total C-OHIP-SF19 score at T₀ was 47.00 (SD = 9.29; range = 0⁻76) and this increased significantly at T₁ to 58.24 (SD = 9.42; range = 0⁻76; p < 0.001, paired t-test), indicating a marked improvement in self-reported OHRQoL. There were no statistically significant differences according to gender. This is the first study to show that simple, minimally invasive dental treatment, to reduce the visibility of enamel opacities, in MIH, can have a positive impact on children's wellbeing.

3

The aim of this study was to investigate the association of stress and anxiety with the expectation, perception and memory of dental pain among schoolchildren. A follow-up study involving 46 children aged 9 to 12 years was conducted in a public school in the city of Petropolis (RJ), Brazil. Demographic characteristics, stress (children’s stress scale), and state and trait anxiety (state⁻trait anxiety inventory) were recorded before a dental procedure to restore the occlusal surface of a permanent first molar under local anaesthetic. Dental pain was assessed using the faces pain scale before (dental pain expectation), immediately after (dental pain perception) and six weeks after (memory of dental pain) the dental procedure. Dental pain expectation scores were significantly higher than dental pain perception, independent of the levels of stress, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Children with high scores of stress (OR 1.05 95%CI 1.02⁻1.09), state anxiety (OR 1.15 95%CI 1.05⁻1.27) and trait anxiety (OR 1.18 95%CI 1.07⁻1.30) were more likely to report greater scores of dental pain expectation. Children anticipated more dental pain than what was actually perceived after the dental restoration. Children with greater levels of stress and anxiety have a distorted evaluation of expected dental pain before the dental procedure.

2

The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance. Dysbiosis occurs due to many confounding factors that predispose a shift in the composition and relative abundance of microbial communities. Dysbiotic communities have been a major cause for many microbiome related systemic infections. Such dysbiosis is directed by certain important pathogens called the “keystone pathogens”, which can modulate community microbiome variations. One such persistent infection is oral infection, mainly periodontitis, where a wide array of causal organisms have been implied to systemic infections such as cardio vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The keystone pathogens co-occur with many yet-cultivable bacteria and their interactions lead to dysbiosis. This has been the focus of recent research. While immune evasion is one of the major modes that leads to dysbiosis, new processes and new virulence factors of bacteria have been shown to be involved in this important process that determines a disease or health state. This review focuses on such dysbiotic communities, their interactions, and their virulence factors that predispose the host to other systemic implications.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Archaea, Disease, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Microbiology, Infection

0

The discomfort of patients due to dentinal hypersensitivity (DH) is one of the main challenges that dentists face in daily practice. Difficulties in DH treatment gave rise to many protocols which are currently used. The aim of this clinical study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a new protocol on the reduction of dentinal hypersensitivity with diode laser 980 nm and the application of a graphite paste. 184 patients enrolled in the study, the degree of pain was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), graphite paste was applied on the exposed dentine before irradiation, the application of diode laser 980 nm with continuous mode, backward motion, tangential incidence of the beam in non-contact mode and a delivery output of 1 W. Fiber’s diameter was 320 μm and total exposure time depended on the time necessary to remove the graphite paste from the teeth. Statistical analyses were performed with Prism 5® software. Pain in post-operative significantly decreased immediately after the treatment. Mean values stayed stable until a 6-month follow-up. The application is considered to be safe with long-term effectiveness.

0

Bacteriophages, viruses capable of killing bacteria, were discovered in 1915, but the interest in their study has been limited since the advent of antibiotics. Their use in dentistry is still very limited. The authors reviewed studies about bacteriophage structure, mode of action, uses in oral health, and possible future uses in dentistry associated with their possible action over biofilm, as well as the advantages and limitations of phage therapy.

0

Traditionally, immature teeth diagnosed with necrotic pulp and periapical periodontitis were treated by apexification with long-term calcium hydroxide or in one session with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or Biodentine apical plug. However, these teeth become fragile and susceptible to root fracture. Regenerative endodontic procedure is a new therapeutic approach that promotes continuation of root growth in immature necrotic teeth potentially preventing root fracture. Only few case reports have shown the success of this procedure on molar cases. The current case report demonstrates a regeneration of a lower first molar with necrotic pulp and chronic apical abscess treated with Micro Mega-MTA (MM-MTA), a new endodontic biomaterial that has not been described previously. Calcium hydroxide was used as an intracanal medicament for two weeks. Next, calcium hydroxide was removed and after blood clot creation, MM-MTA® was placed over it. Apical healing and continuation of root growth were evident at nine months follow-up. CBCT at two years follow-up confirmed apical closure and complete healing. This case shows that a regenerative endodontic procedure for management of an immature necrotic permanent molar is feasible and can be successfully done using Ca(OH)₂ and MM-MTA.

0

We assessed the efficiency of two shaping file systems and two passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) devices for removing filling material during retreatment. The mesial canals from 44 extracted mandibular molars were prepared and obturated. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups, and then one group was retreated with Reciproc R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) (n = 44) and the other group was retreated with 2Shape (TS, Micro Mega, Besançon, France) (n = 44). A micro-computed tomography (CT) scan was taken before and after the retreatment to assess the volume of the filling material remnants. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups to test two different PUI devices: Irrisafe (Satelec Acteon Group, Merignac, France) and Endo Ultra (Vista Dental Products, Racine, WI, USA). The teeth in Group A were retreated with 2Shape to test the Endo Ultra (n = 22) device, the teeth in Group B were retreated with 2Shape in order to test the Irrisafe (n = 22) device, the teeth in Group C were retreated with Reciproc to test the Endo Ultra (n = 22) device, and Group D was retreated with Reciproc to test the Irrisafe (n = 22) device. A third micro-CT scan was taken after the retreatment to test the PUIs. The percentage of Gutta-Percha (GP) and sealer removed was 94.75% for TS2 (p < 0.001) and 89.3% for R25 (p < 0.001). The PUI significantly enhanced the removal of the filling material by 0.76% for Group A (p < 0.001), 1.47% for Group B (p < 0.001), 2.61% for Group C (p < 0.001), and by 1.66% for Group D (p < 0.001). 2Shape was more effective at removing the GP and sealer during retreatment (p = 0.018). The supplementary approach with PUI significantly improved filling material removal, with no statistical difference between the four groups (p = 0.106).

0

This study evaluated the accuracy of the Root ZX (J. Morita, Tokyo, Japan) electronic apex locator in determining the working length when palatal maxillary molar roots are in a relationship with the sinus. Seventeen human maxillary molars with vital pulp were scheduled for an extraction and implant placement as part of a periodontal treatment plan. The access cavity was prepared, and a #10 K file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) was inserted into the palatal root using the Root ZX apex locator in order to determine the electronic working length (EWL); then, the teeth were extracted. To determine the real working length (RWL), a #10 K file was introduced into the root canal until its tip touched a glass plate. EWL and RWL were compared. Images reconstructed with CBCT (cone beam computerized tomography) revealed that eight palatal roots were related to the maxillary sinus, whereas nine were not. The results showed a significant difference between the EWL and the RWL of the palatal roots related to the sinus (p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in measurements of roots not in contact with the sinus (p > 0.05). Within the study limitations, the reliability of Root ZX was influenced by the relationship of the roots with the maxillary sinus.

0

Clasp retainers made of metal alloys may be esthetically unappealing or cause allergic reactions. To investigate alternative materials, we used the nonfiller polyetheretherketone (PEEK) to fabricate the clasp retainer of a removable partial denture for the mandibular bilateral distal free-end abutment of an 84-year-old female. Two years later, few color and texture changes of PEEK were found macroscopically. The rest part and the clasp arm fitted well without any deformation. There were no particular occlusal or periodontal problems. Subjective satisfaction was expressed by both the practitioner and the patient.

0

Undocumented immigrants are a high-risk social group with low access to care. The present study aims to increase awareness and dental attendance in this subgroup, assisted by community health workers (CHW). Starting from 2015, two trained dentists volunteered to perform free oral health examinations and further dental care referral in a welfare organisation in Ghent, Belgium. In 2016 and 2017, a two-day oral health training was added, enabling social workers to operate as community oral health workers and to provide personal oral health advice and assistance. Over the three years, an oral health examination was performed on 204 clients from 1 to 69 years old, with a mean age of 36.7 (SD = 15.9), showing high levels of untreated caries (71.6%; n = 146) and a Dutch Periodontal Screening Index (DPSI) score of 3 or 4 in 62.2% of the sample (n = 97). Regarding dental attendance, the total number of missed appointments decreased significantly, with 40.9% in 2015, 11.9% in 2016 and 8.0% in 2017 (p < 0.001). Undocumented immigrants can be integrated into professional oral health care. Personal assistance by community health workers might be an effective method, although this requires further investigation.