SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Dentistry journal

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Molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is a common enamel condition, presenting with incisor opacities, which may be of psychosocial concern to children. This clinical study sought to determine whether minimally invasive treatment, aiming to improve incisor aesthetics, would also improve children’s oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). 111 MIH patients, aged 7⁻16 years, referred to a UK Dental Hospital, were invited to complete the Child Oral Health Impact Profile (C-OHIP-SF19) prior to any intervention (T₀) and again at one-month following the intervention (T₁) for MIH. Treatment regimens included one or more of the following: Microabrasion; resin infiltration; tooth whitening; resin composite restoration. Data were obtained for 93 children with a mean age of 11 years. Mean total C-OHIP-SF19 score at T₀ was 47.00 (SD = 9.29; range = 0⁻76) and this increased significantly at T₁ to 58.24 (SD = 9.42; range = 0⁻76; p < 0.001, paired t-test), indicating a marked improvement in self-reported OHRQoL. There were no statistically significant differences according to gender. This is the first study to show that simple, minimally invasive dental treatment, to reduce the visibility of enamel opacities, in MIH, can have a positive impact on children's wellbeing.

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The aim of this study was to investigate the association of stress and anxiety with the expectation, perception and memory of dental pain among schoolchildren. A follow-up study involving 46 children aged 9 to 12 years was conducted in a public school in the city of Petropolis (RJ), Brazil. Demographic characteristics, stress (children’s stress scale), and state and trait anxiety (state⁻trait anxiety inventory) were recorded before a dental procedure to restore the occlusal surface of a permanent first molar under local anaesthetic. Dental pain was assessed using the faces pain scale before (dental pain expectation), immediately after (dental pain perception) and six weeks after (memory of dental pain) the dental procedure. Dental pain expectation scores were significantly higher than dental pain perception, independent of the levels of stress, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Children with high scores of stress (OR 1.05 95%CI 1.02⁻1.09), state anxiety (OR 1.15 95%CI 1.05⁻1.27) and trait anxiety (OR 1.18 95%CI 1.07⁻1.30) were more likely to report greater scores of dental pain expectation. Children anticipated more dental pain than what was actually perceived after the dental restoration. Children with greater levels of stress and anxiety have a distorted evaluation of expected dental pain before the dental procedure.

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The human body supports the growth of a wide array of microbial communities in various niches such as the oral cavity, gastro-intestinal and urogenital tracts, and on the surface of the skin. These host associated microbial communities include yet-un-cultivable bacteria and are influenced by various factors. Together, these communities of bacteria are referred to as the human microbiome. Human oral microbiome consists of both symbionts and pathobionts. Deviation from symbiosis among the bacterial community leads to “dysbiosis”, a state of community disturbance. Dysbiosis occurs due to many confounding factors that predispose a shift in the composition and relative abundance of microbial communities. Dysbiotic communities have been a major cause for many microbiome related systemic infections. Such dysbiosis is directed by certain important pathogens called the “keystone pathogens”, which can modulate community microbiome variations. One such persistent infection is oral infection, mainly periodontitis, where a wide array of causal organisms have been implied to systemic infections such as cardio vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer’s disease. The keystone pathogens co-occur with many yet-cultivable bacteria and their interactions lead to dysbiosis. This has been the focus of recent research. While immune evasion is one of the major modes that leads to dysbiosis, new processes and new virulence factors of bacteria have been shown to be involved in this important process that determines a disease or health state. This review focuses on such dysbiotic communities, their interactions, and their virulence factors that predispose the host to other systemic implications.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, Archaea, Disease, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Microbiology, Infection

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Background:Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) are two major contributors to dental caries. They have a symbiotic relationship, allowing them to create an enhanced biofilm. Our goal was to examine whether two natural polyphenols (Padma hepaten (PH) and a polyphenol extraction from green tea (PPFGT)) could inhibit the caries-inducing properties of S. mutans and C. albicans. Methods: Co-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans were grown in the presence of PH and PPFGT. Biofilm formation was tested spectrophotometrically. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) secretion was quantified using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Biofilm development was also tested on orthodontic surfaces (Essix) to assess biofilm inhibition ability on such an orthodontic appliance. Results: PPFGT and PH dose-dependently inhibited biofilm formation without affecting the planktonic growth. We found a significant reduction in biofilm total biomass using 0.625 mg/mL PPFGT and 0.16 mg/mL PH. A concentration of 0.31 mg/mL PPFGT and 0.16 mg/mL PH inhibited the total cell growth by 54% and EPS secretion by 81%. A reduction in biofilm formation and EPS secretion was also observed on orthodontic PVC surfaces. Conclusions: The polyphenolic extractions PPFGT and PH have an inhibitory effect on S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm formation and EPS secretion.

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The aim of this study was to assess existing knowledge on oral cancer (OC), attitude toward OC examination, and clinical practice among dentists practicing in the governmental health sector in the State of Qatar, including the influence of personal characteristics.

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Restorative procedures associated with bioglasses have shown to be a strategy to satisfy the contemporary concept of minimally invasive dentistry. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength to dentin treated by two different methods of biosilicate microparticle application. Dentin surfaces from 30 sound human molars were exposed and randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10) according to the surface treatment: (1) blasting with biosilicate microparticles (distance = 1 cm/pressure = 5 bar/time = 1 min); (2) 10% biosilicate microparticles paste; and (3) control (no treatment). After, dentin surfaces were restored with self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy Bond) and nanofilled composite (Filtek Z350). Specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface to obtain sticks (cross-section area = 1 mm²), which were submitted to microtensile test (0.5 mm/min; 50 kgf). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 5%). Dentin/adhesive interfaces were morphologically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data analysis showed that biosilicate-treated groups reached similar results (p > 0.05) and both of them demonstrated higher values (p < 0.05) than control group. SEM micrographs revealed hybridization with clear resin tags and no separation between resin-dentin adhesive interfaces. Within the limitations of this study, surface treatment with biosilicate positively influenced the adhesion to dentin and does not alter the morphology of the adhesive interface.

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Recently, the main American associations in the dental field reported concerns regarding a film on the Netflix, Amazon, Apple, and Vimeo platforms that reported that endodontic treatments of root canals are linked to serious systemic pathologies, against any scientific evidence. This extreme case highlights how information, in a social networking era, is dramatically conditioned by a small number of users, leading to large scale consequences in political opinions, alimentary choices, or even in healthcare policy. It is urgent to demonstrate a strong awareness by the academic, institutional, and associative bodies in order to restore the correct flow of information on mass media and social networks.

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Dental anxiety is very common; however, there is a lack of studies focusing on reducing children’s dental anxiety. One such initiative, the guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) resources ‘Your teeth, you are in control’, reduces dental anxiety in children attending paediatric dentistry clinics. This service evaluation aims to investigate whether such CBT resources reduce children’s dental anxiety when implemented in general dental practice. A convenience sample of children was given the resources by their dental practitioner. There was no control group. Children completed the Children’s Experiences of Dental Anxiety Measure (CEDAM) prior to using the resources and on completion of a course of dental treatment. Overall, 84 children were involved, with a mean age of 10.9 years; 48 were female and 59 were living in the most deprived area of England. At baseline the mean CEDAM score was 20.3, and on receiving the resource and completing treatment the mean CEDAM score was 16.4, showing a significant reduction in dental anxiety (t = 14.6, (df = 83), p < 0.001, 95% CI: 3.4⁻4.4). The items that improved the most were worry over having dental treatment and dental treatment being painful. The service evaluation indicates a reduction in child dental anxiety following the use of CBT resources in general practice. Further evaluation, preferably a randomised controlled trial, is needed.

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The current mode of dental caries management mainly operates through irreversible and symptomatic treatment by means of drilling and filling, while caries prevention is largely overlooked or omitted. Focus should be redirected through a medical model towards elimination of the disease through tackling its causes and risk factors to address current and future caries initiation. Caries is the demineralisation of dental hard tissues by bacterial acids when periodically exposed to fermentable carbohydrates. The medical model of caries management is a philosophy that steers sustainable caries management through controlling bacterial infection, a reduction of risk levels, remineralisation of teeth and long-term follow-up. Its goal is to prevent new and recurrent caries, arrest ongoing caries processes by alteration of the cariogenic environment, and support the healing of remineralisable enamel and dentine. The mechanism involves dietary counselling and plaque control, placement of dental sealants, administration of fluoride agents and chemotherapeutic medications and use of chewing gum. This paradigm shift from a surgical to a medical model aims to pursue the ultimate intention of maintaining a caries-free dentition and is anticipated to promote true oral health-related quality of life. The objective of this paper is to discuss the medical model of caries management.

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Supernumerary teeth (or hyperdontia) are teeth that exceed the normal number of deciduous or permanent teeth in the oral cavity. The occurrence of supernumerary teeth without any associated syndrome has been frequently reported and many case reports have been published. This article reports two rare cases of familial occurrence of multiple paramolars without the presence of any other syndrome for two consecutive generations. Limited cases of bilateral maxillary or mandibular paramolars have been reported. In addition, prevalence, classification, etiology, complications, diagnosis and therapeutic strategies that may be adopted when supernumeraries occur are discussed. A review of similar cases published in the literature is included as well.