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Journal: Dental traumatology : official publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology

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Abstract -  Aim: Experimental materials incorporating fiberglass cloth were used to develop a thin and lightweight face guard (FG). This study aims to evaluate the effect of fiberglass reinforcement on the flexural and shock absorption properties compared with conventional thermoplastic materials. Material and Method: Four commercial 3.2-mm and 1.6-mm medical splint materials (Aquaplast, Polyform, Co-polymer, and Erkodur) and two experimental materials were examined for use in FGs. The experimental materials were prepared by embedding two or four sheets of a plain woven fiberglass cloth on both surfaces of 1.5-mm Aquaplast. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a three-point bending test. The shock absorption properties were evaluated for a 5200-N impact load using the first peak intensity with a load cell system and the maximum stress with a film sensor system. Results and Conclusions: The flexural strength (74.6 MPa) and flexural modulus (6.3 GPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly greater than those of the 3.2-mm commercial specimens, except for the flexural strength of one product. The first peak intensity (515 N) and maximum stress (2.2 MPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly lower than those of the commercial 3.2-mm specimens, except for one product for each property. These results suggest that the thickness and weight of the FG can be reduced using the experimental fiber-reinforced material.

Concepts: Shock, Materials science, Tensile strength, Material, Pascal, Young's modulus, Thermoplastic, Shock absorber

27

- Primary tooth impaction is a rare phenomenon when compared to permanent teeth impaction. The purpose of this report is to present a 5-year-old Chinese girl who exhibited impaction of tooth 51, its unusual consequence on the permanent successor tooth and its comprehensive management. Her parents revealed that at 6 months of age, the patient had fallen from her bed and struck her face on the floor; however, there were no teeth present in the oral cavity. The intraoral examinations identified a bony-like projection on the buccal aspect of the alveolus in the 51 region. Radiographic examination revealed that tooth 51 exhibited an unfavourable orientation, with the crown directed towards the palate. Therefore, the impacted tooth 51 was surgically removed, and two years later tooth 11 erupted into the oral cavity with an indentation on its incisal aspect, which resembled the crown of the primary teeth, thus giving the appearance of a tooth within a tooth or ‘dens in dente’. Subsequently, enameloplasty and composite resin build-up was performed on tooth 11 for aesthetic reasons. It is very unusual to have the clinical crowns of both primary and permanent teeth in such close proximity within the alveolar bone, and the present case is a good example to emphasize that trauma to the primary teeth is of considerable importance due to the close proximity of the primary teeth to permanent tooth germs.

Concepts: Teeth, Incisor, Maxillary central incisor, Canine tooth, Maxillary lateral incisor, Deciduous teeth, Permanent teeth

26

The association between large overjet and traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) to anterior teeth is documented. However, observational studies are discrepant and generalizability (i.e. external validity) of meta-analyses is limited. Therefore, this meta-analysis sought to reconcile such discrepancies seeking to provide reliable risk estimates which could be generalizable at global level.

Concepts: Observational study, The Association, Meta-analysis, External validity

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The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and search for scientific evidence on the association between socioeconomic indicators and traumatic dental injury (TDI) in the primary dentition.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, The Association, Meta-analysis

24

Facial injury in adults can commonly result in fractures of the mandible. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) transplantation is proposed as an alternative to conventional graft treatment to improve bone regeneration. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of AMSCs application in mandibular fractures to reduce regeneration time and increase bone quality.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Stem cells, Effectiveness, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research

23

In cases of tooth avulsion, a minimal extra-alveolar dry storage period or the use of a suitable storage medium is crucial to maintaining the vitality of the periodontal ligament. Whey has similar properties to milk and has therefore been investigated as a storage medium for avulsed teeth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the repair process after replantation of rat teeth kept in whey and whole milk.

Concepts: Whey protein, Milk, Cattle, Periodontal ligament, Whey

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Dental trauma to the predecessor teeth can cause crown and root dilacerations to the successor teeth, which can interfere with the normal development of permanent teeth. The aims of this study were to verify the types of trauma more frequent to the predecessor teeth that cause dilaceration to their successor teeth, to determine the frequency of crown and root dilacerations in permanent incisors, taking into account the child’s age at the time of trauma, and to describe the types of treatment performed.

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Facial edema after maxillofacial trauma is a common occurrence, but those that soon resolve only to appear again do invoke interest! A rare case is presented of a recurring facial swelling occurring after a maxillofacial injury that did not resolve subsequent to medication. Aspiration revealed about 30 ml of pale yellow liquid which led to complete resolution of the swelling. It soon reappeared and resolved again twice in the next few days. Cytospin preparations of the aspirate stained with Giemsa revealed candidiasis. The patient’s symptoms resolved soon with antifungal medications and he has been asymptomatic since. Such a scenario has never been reported in the literature and can pose a diagnostic dilemma. It gives insight into the unusual clinical presentation of facial candidiasis, the importance of thorough debridement of soft tissue wounds at primary care centers and the need to consider mycoses as a differential diagnosis for non-resolving soft tissue facial swellings after maxillofacial trauma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Mouthguards are dental devices able to soften the risks of facial trauma. However, the large variety of mouthguard types and thicknesses raises the question of each one is the most effective and beneficial for the athlete. The aim of this study was to evaluate stress distribution in the skull, teeth and jaw as a consequence of a direct impact.