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Journal: Dental traumatology : official publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology


Abstract -  Aim: Experimental materials incorporating fiberglass cloth were used to develop a thin and lightweight face guard (FG). This study aims to evaluate the effect of fiberglass reinforcement on the flexural and shock absorption properties compared with conventional thermoplastic materials. Material and Method: Four commercial 3.2-mm and 1.6-mm medical splint materials (Aquaplast, Polyform, Co-polymer, and Erkodur) and two experimental materials were examined for use in FGs. The experimental materials were prepared by embedding two or four sheets of a plain woven fiberglass cloth on both surfaces of 1.5-mm Aquaplast. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were determined using a three-point bending test. The shock absorption properties were evaluated for a 5200-N impact load using the first peak intensity with a load cell system and the maximum stress with a film sensor system. Results and Conclusions: The flexural strength (74.6 MPa) and flexural modulus (6.3 GPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly greater than those of the 3.2-mm commercial specimens, except for the flexural strength of one product. The first peak intensity (515 N) and maximum stress (2.2 MPa) of the experimental material with four sheets were significantly lower than those of the commercial 3.2-mm specimens, except for one product for each property. These results suggest that the thickness and weight of the FG can be reduced using the experimental fiber-reinforced material.

Concepts: Shock, Materials science, Tensile strength, Material, Pascal, Young's modulus, Thermoplastic, Shock absorber


- Primary tooth impaction is a rare phenomenon when compared to permanent teeth impaction. The purpose of this report is to present a 5-year-old Chinese girl who exhibited impaction of tooth 51, its unusual consequence on the permanent successor tooth and its comprehensive management. Her parents revealed that at 6 months of age, the patient had fallen from her bed and struck her face on the floor; however, there were no teeth present in the oral cavity. The intraoral examinations identified a bony-like projection on the buccal aspect of the alveolus in the 51 region. Radiographic examination revealed that tooth 51 exhibited an unfavourable orientation, with the crown directed towards the palate. Therefore, the impacted tooth 51 was surgically removed, and two years later tooth 11 erupted into the oral cavity with an indentation on its incisal aspect, which resembled the crown of the primary teeth, thus giving the appearance of a tooth within a tooth or ‘dens in dente’. Subsequently, enameloplasty and composite resin build-up was performed on tooth 11 for aesthetic reasons. It is very unusual to have the clinical crowns of both primary and permanent teeth in such close proximity within the alveolar bone, and the present case is a good example to emphasize that trauma to the primary teeth is of considerable importance due to the close proximity of the primary teeth to permanent tooth germs.

Concepts: Teeth, Incisor, Maxillary central incisor, Canine tooth, Maxillary lateral incisor, Deciduous teeth, Permanent teeth


Facial injury in adults can commonly result in fractures of the mandible. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) transplantation is proposed as an alternative to conventional graft treatment to improve bone regeneration. The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of AMSCs application in mandibular fractures to reduce regeneration time and increase bone quality.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Stem cells, Effectiveness, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research


In cases of tooth avulsion, a minimal extra-alveolar dry storage period or the use of a suitable storage medium is crucial to maintaining the vitality of the periodontal ligament. Whey has similar properties to milk and has therefore been investigated as a storage medium for avulsed teeth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the repair process after replantation of rat teeth kept in whey and whole milk.

Concepts: Whey protein, Milk, Cattle, Periodontal ligament, Whey



Tooth replacement in the anterior maxilla is most often indicated after traumatic dental injury or due to congenital missing teeth. Treatment alternatives include implant-supported restorations, conventional fixed bridges, acid-etched bridges, orthodontic space closure, or autotransplantation. Dental implants have gained increased popularity over the last 40 years. However, this treatment modality is contraindicated in patients with continuous growth of the alveolar process due to the risk of severe infrapostion of the dental implant. Likewise, conventional fixed bridges are often contraindicated in young individuals since large dental pulp chambers increase the risk of pulp necrosis, and acid-etched bridges are still considered temporary solutions due to questionable long-term retention. Orthodontic space closure may be indicated in young individuals. However, it is not always feasible for functional or aesthetic reasons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Implants, Teeth, Dental implant, Dentistry, All rights reserved, Osseointegration, Copyright, Maxilla


The impact of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in the primary dentition on oral health-related quality of life indicates the need for the planning of prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess whether anthropometric characteristics in early life are associated with TDI by preschool age MATERIALS AND METHODS: A birth cohort was recruited from the public healthcare system in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Socio-demographic variables, type of birth, head circumference, weight and length were collected at birth (WHO standards). Head circumference, body mass index for age and height for age were collected at 12 months. TDI (Andreasen criteria) at three years of age (n = 458) were recorded by two examiners who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Multivariable analysis was carried out with Poisson regression with robust variance RESULTS: A total of 31.0% of the children (142/458) exhibited TDI at three years of age. In the final model, the risk of TDI was 47% higher among children with a smaller head circumference upon birth and nearly 60% higher among those who were overweight/obese at 12 months of age (RR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.15-2.17). The risk of TDI was also significantly higher among boys (RR 1.50; 95% CI: 1.13-2.00), but the outcome was not significantly associated with socioeconomic variables or other anthropometric variables CONCLUSION: Overweight/obesity in early life is a risk factor for TDI in preschool children. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Cohort study, Life, Body mass index, Childhood, All rights reserved, Copyright, Porto Alegre


There appears to be much confusion or misinformation worldwide regarding mouthguards and their use in sports. In an effort to clarify where the international dental community stands on mouthguards and mouthguard research, the workshop looked at some important questions. The goal is to one day formulate consensus statements related to these questions, which will be based on current scientific evidence-based research, to motivate the international community of the importance of dentally fitted laminated mouthguards and the wearing of them by athletes of all sports. There are only five sports in the USA that require the use of mouthguards. If through workshops such as this, the importance of wearing dentally fitted laminated mouthguards can be demonstrated, then more sports may require their athletes to wear them. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, United States, Dentistry, All rights reserved, Dental equipment, All rights reversed, Copyright, Mouthguard


The prevalence of work-related oral trauma is underestimated because minor dental injuries are often not reported in patients with several injuries in different parts of the body. In addition, little data are available regarding their characteristics. The aim of this epidemiological study was to determine the prevalence, types and characteristics of occupational traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in a large working community.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Psychological trauma, Physical trauma


The surface roughness of dental materials can make cleaning difficult, thus facilitating retention of food debris and accumulation of microorganisms. The aim of this study was to assess whether thickness, color and the polishing process influence the surface roughness of ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) sheets and the amount of microorganisms that adhere to them.

Concepts: Materials science