Journal: Dental materials journal
The accuracy of prostheses affects clinical success and is, in turn, affected by the accuracy of the scanner and CAD programs. Thus, their accuracy is important. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of an intraoral scanner with active triangulation (Cerec Omnicam), an intraoral scanner with a confocal laser (3Shape Trios), and an extraoral scanner with active triangulation (D810). The second aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the digital crowns designed with two different scanner/CAD combinations. The accuracy of the intraoral scanners and extraoral scanner was clinically acceptable. Marginal and internal fit of the digital crowns fabricated using the intraoral scanner and CAD programs were inferior to those fabricated using the extraoral scanner and CAD programs.
The surface topography of implant fixture is an important factor affecting the osseointegration. We herein demonstrated the effects of surface microtopography of titanium disks on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells isolated from rat calvariae. Titanium disks with machine surface (MS), rough surface (R1) and rough surface combined with small cavities (R2) were used in an in vitro culture system. Rough surfaces (R1 and R2 disks) induced stronger osteoblast proliferation and differentiation (BGP and sclerostin mRNA expressions and calcium content) than the smooth surface (MS disk). Furthermore, surface microtopography of R2 disk, which was rough with small cavities, more strongly induced cell proliferation and mineralized bone matrix production than R1 disk. Our results suggest that surface microtopography influences osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. R2 disk, which is rough with small cavities, may be used in implant fixtures to increase osseointegration.
The mechanical properties of temporary crowns are considered to be crucial in order to achieve successful definite restorations. This study compared marginal fit, internal fit, fracture strength and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM temporary crowns to direct chairside counterparts. An upper left first premolar Frasaco tooth was prepared for all-ceramic crown. The materials used for comparison were VITA CAD-Temp®, ArtBloc®Temp, PMMA DISK and Acrytemp (control group). The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10). Each crown was investigated for the above parameters. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.20. The average marginal gap, internal gap and fracture strength showed statistically significant difference between groups (p<0.01). The fracture mode showed statistically non-significant difference (p>0.05) among experimental groups. The CAD/CAM temporary crowns demonstrated superior mechanical properties compared to direct handmade counterparts.
The current study evaluated the effects of autoclave polymerization both with and without glass fiber (GF) reinforcement on the surface roughness and hardness of acrylic denture base material. Ninety disc specimens (30×2.5 mm) were prepared from Vertex resin and divided according to polymerization techniques into a water bath, short and long autoclave polymerization groups. Tested groups were divided into three subgroups according to the GF concentration (0, 2.5, and 5 wt%). Profilometer and Vickers hardness tests were performed to measure surface roughness and hardness. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests analyzed the results, and p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Autoclave polymerization significantly decreased the surface roughness and increased the hardness of acrylic resin without GF reinforcement (p<0.05). However, 5 wt% GF addition significantly increased surface roughness and decreased hardness of the autoclave polymerized denture base resin (p<0.05). Surface properties of Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material improved with autoclave polymerization and negatively affected with GFs addition.
The present in vitro study sought to determine the effects of myrrh-containing solutions on common suture materials used in periodontal surgery. Three commonly used suture materials (silk, polyglactin 910, polytetrafluoroethylene) were immersed in four thermostatically controlled experimental media to simulate daily oral rinsing activity, namely -artificial saliva, normal saline solution with 0.2% Commiphora myrrh, full-concentration (100%) Commiphora myrrh oil, and a myrrh-containing commercial mouthwash. Tensile strength was measured at the end of each day using an Instron tensile testing machine. Silk sutures were susceptible to tensile strength loss when exposed to 0.2% myrrh solution once daily for 5 days. Myrrh-containing commercial mouthwash had no effect on tensile strength, but all three suture materials lost tensile strength when exposed to 100% myrrh oil. For patients that routinely use myrrh mouthwashes postoperatively, findings of this study suggested that silk sutures might not be the optimal material choice.
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pre-etching time and material on shear bond strength (SBS) of self-adhesive resin cements to eroded and sound enamel. Eroded enamel specimens were assigned into 5 groups (n=20 each) based on enamel surface treatment as follow: Group N, eroded enamel (without surface pre-treatment); Group PH15, 35% H3PO4 etching for 15 s; Group PH30, 35% H3PO4 etching for 30 s; Group L30, 20% lactic acid etching for 30 s and Group L60, 20% lactic acid etching for 60 s.Composite blocks were fabricated and cemented to enamel surfaces with one of two self-adhesive cements. Notched-edge SBS was assessed. Bond strength of self-adhesive cement to eroded enamel surface significantly enhanced following application of 20% lactic acid for 30 s.
Methacrylate monomers found in many dental materials cause toxicity to dental pulp cells but the mechanism of the toxicity is poorly understood. We used cultured human dental pulp cells to test the effects of three commonly used monomers; bisphenol-A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The order of toxicity was Bis-GMA>UDMA>TEGDMA. The toxicity correlated inversely with cystine uptake, with TEGDMA stimulating uptake and BisGMA and UDMA inhibiting uptake. Bis-GMA and UDMA induced oxidative stress, while TEGDMA did not. Toxicity correlated poorly with glutathione levels, as all compounds decreased cellular glutathione. TEGDMA is less toxic than Bis-GMA and UDMA likely because it stimulates cystine uptake and does not induce oxidative stress, the enhanced uptake of cystine appears to compensate for TEGDMA’s direct interaction with glutathione. Bis-GMA and UDMA both deplete glutathione and inhibit cystine uptake leading to oxidative stress and cell death.
The objective of this work was to analyze the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of bismuth lipophilic nanoparticles (BisBAL NPs) incorporated into chitosan-based membranes. Chitosan-based membranes were homogeneously embedded with BisBAL NPs, confirming the bismuth presence by scanning electron microscopy. The tensile strength of chitosan-based membrane alone or with BisBAL NPs showed similar results as elongation, suggesting that BisBAL NP addition did not affect membrane mechanical properties. Chitosan-based membranes complemented with 100 µM of BisBAL NPs caused a complete inhibition of biofilm formation and a 90-98% growth inhibition of six different oral pathogens. Cytotoxicity studies revealed that 80% of human gingival fibroblasts were viable after a 24-h exposure to the chitosan-based membrane with 100 µM of BisBAL NPs and collagen. Altogether, we conclude that the biological properties of chitosan-based membranes supplemented with BisBAL NPs could be a very interesting option for tissue regeneration.
The purpose was to evaluate the bond strength between adhesive cement and translucent zirconia in comparison to conventional zirconia. Four brands of translucent zirconia (BruxZir® HT, Lava™ Plus, Prettau® Anterior, and Prettau® Zirconia) and one conventional zirconia (Kavo Everest® ZS) were evaluated. Specimens were divided into groups depending on the pretreatment of the cementation surface of the zirconia: as-produced, hydrofluoric acid treatment, or sandblasted. The groups underwent three different procedures of artificial aging: water storage (24 h), 5,000 thermocycles, or long-term aging, (water storage 150 days including 37,500 thermocycles) before shear bond strength testing. Sandblasting treatment increased the bond strength significantly for all the brands of zirconia, irrespective of artificial aging procedures, in comparison to the control group. Bond strength between adhesive cement to translucent zirconia is equivalent to conventional zirconia. Sandblasting creates a cementation surface that is more durable than as-produced or hydrofluoric-acid-treated, irrespective of type of zirconia.
Bioactivity of Bio-MA, a calcium chloride accerelator-containing calcium-silicate cement, as a pulp capping material was evaluated on mechanically exposed rat molar pulp. Sixty maxillary first molars from Wistar rats were mechanically exposed and assigned to two capping materials: Bio-MA or white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), and three periods: 1, 7, or 30 days. Nine molars were exposed and covered with polytetrafluoroethylene tape, as positive controls. From histological examination, inflammatory cell infiltration and reparative dentin formation were evaluated using grading scores. No significant difference in pulpal responses between the two materials was observed at any period (p>0.05). At 1 day, all experimental groups showed localized mild inflammation. At 7 days, dentin bridge was partially observed at exposure sites with few inflammatory cells. At 30 days, pulp appeared normal with complete tubular dentin bridges. Bio-MA with accerelator was biocompatible similar to WMTA and could be used as a pulp-capping material.