SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental

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Paracetamol is commonly used to control mild-to-moderate pain or to reduce opioid exposure as part of multimodal analgesia, and is the only compound recommended to treat fever in neonates. Paracetamol clearance is lower in neonates than in children and adults. After metabolic conversion, paracetamol is subsequently eliminated by the renal route. The main metabolic conversions are conjugation with glucuronic acid and with sulphate. In the urine of neonates sulphated paracetamol concentration is higher than the glucuronidated paracetamol level, suggesting that sulfation prevails over glucuronidation in neonates. A loading dose of 20 mg/kg followed by 10 mg/kg every 6 hours of intravenous paracetamol is suggested to achieve a compartment concentration of 11 mg/L in late preterm and term neonates. Aiming for the same target concentration, oral doses are similar with rectal administration of 25 to 30 mg/kg/d in preterm neonates of 30 weeks' gestation, 45 mg/kg/d in preterm infants of 34 weeks' gestation, and 60 mg/kg/d in term neonates are suggested. The above-mentioned paracetamol doses for these indications (pain, fever) are well tolerated in neonates, but do not result in a significant increase in liver enzymes, and do not affect blood pressure and have limited effects on heart rate. In contrast, the higher doses suggested in extreme preterm neonates to induce closure of the patent ductus arteriosus have not yet been sufficiently evaluated regarding efficacy or safety. Moreover, focussed pharmacovigilance to explore the potential causal association between paracetamol exposure during perinatal life and infancy and subsequent atopy is warranted.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Childbirth, Infant, Fetus, Ibuprofen, Patent ductus arteriosus, Ductus arteriosus, Preterm birth

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Pills (tablets and capsules) are widely used to administer prescription drugs or to take supplements such as vitamins. Unfortunately, little is known about how much effort it takes Americans to swallow these various pills. More specifically, it is not known to what extent hard-to-swallow pills might affect treatment outcomes (eg, interfering with adherence to prescribed medications or causing clinical complications). It is also unclear which properties (eg, size, shape, or surface texture) Americans prefer or reject for their pills. To learn more about these issues, we interviewed a small group of individuals.

Concepts: Psychology, Pharmacology, Prescription drug, Quantum mechanics, Drugs, Medical prescription, Food and Drug Administration, Dysphagia

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Inappropriate antiplatelet therapy discontinuation increases the risk of thrombotic complications and bleeding after dental procedures. To determine the platelet reactivity recovery time after aspirin withdrawal in vivo, our study was conducted in patients with low-risk cardiovascular disease who can stop aspirin administration following the guidelines stipulated by the American College of Chest Physicians. The time it takes for platelet activity to normalize and the diagnostic accuracy of testing methods were assessed for a residual antiplatelet activity with multiple electrode aggregometry. Our study included patients with clinically indicated hypertension preparing for a dental extraction procedure.

Concepts: Medicine, Blood, Myocardial infarction, Platelet, Antiplatelet drug, Aspirin, Endodontic therapy, Dentistry

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Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight.

Concepts: Metabolism, Nutrition, Fat, Carbon, In vitro, Opuntia, Cactus, Cochineal

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This controlled single-blind trial compared the efficacy of a lip balm with propolis special extract GH 2002 at a concentration of 0.5% in the treatment of episodes of herpes labialis with that of 5% aciclovir cream.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Mouth, Herpes simplex, Herpes labialis, Aciclovir

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Statins are at the forefront of strategies to manage hypercholesterolemia. However 10% to 15% of patients are intolerant to any statin drugs, even at low daily doses and almost one-third of statin users discontinue therapy within 1 year. Some nutraceuticals are prescribed as lipid-lowering substances, but doubts remain about their efficacy and tolerability.

Concepts: Nutrition, Statin, Fibrate, Red yeast rice, Lovastatin

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Pneumonia is the most common cause of death in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID), and intravenous ceftazidime (CAZ) is a widely used treatment for such infections. However, intravenous administration in patients with SMID may be difficult because of insufficient vascular development.

Concepts: Model organism, Intravenous therapy

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Ciprofloxacin is a commonly used antibiotic for urinary tract infection that interacts with bacterial topoisomerases leading to oxidative radicals generation and bacterial cell death. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEis), on the other hand, are commonly used drugs for the management of erectile dysfunction. The group includes agents such as sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil.

Concepts: Bacteria, Urinary tract infection, Erectile dysfunction, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate, Phosphodiesterase

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To investigate the potential mechanisms underlying the protective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) and carbamylated EPO (CEPO) against myocardial cell apoptosis in epilepsy.

Concepts: DNA, Erythropoietin, Gene expression, Adenosine triphosphate, Enzyme, Cardiac muscle, Transcription factor, Vesicle