SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Current opinion in psychiatry

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Suicide is a major cause of mortality accounting for nearly 1 million deaths globally per year. Suicide occurs throughout the lifespan; therefore, large epidemiological samples are needed to identify patterns in suicide death. This review examines emerging evidence relating to risk and protective factors as well as preventive measures for suicide.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Disease, Death, Demography, Randomized controlled trial, Suicide, Names of large numbers

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We review studies of infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), proposing that the earliest manifestations of disrupted brain development can shed light on prebehavioural markers of risk and mechanisms underlying the heterogeneity of ASD.

Concepts: Psychology, Autism, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Autism spectrum, PDD-NOS

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This review discusses the concept of ‘dementia-friendly communities’ and summarizes the latest research and practice around such communities. This review also highlights important topic areas to be considered to promote dementia friendliness in healthcare settings.

Concepts: Research and development

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The perinatal period introduces a myriad of changes. One important but often overlooked change is the increased risk for sleep disturbance. Although casually regarded as a consequence of pregnancy or postpartum, there is emerging evidence to suggest that women with significant sleep disturbance, characterized by insomnia symptoms and/or poor sleep quality, are more likely to report an increase in depressive symptomatology or develop postpartum depression (PPD). Significant consequences may arise as a result including issues with maternal-infant bonding, effective care for the infant and behavioral or emotional difficulties in the infant. This review discusses the relevant literature as to how disturbed sleep during pregnancy as well as in the postpartum may increase the risk for PPD.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Embryo, Fetus, Obstetrics, Breastfeeding, Menstrual cycle, Bipolar disorder

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Trouble falling or staying asleep, poor sleep quality, and short or long sleep duration are gaining attention as potential risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Sleep-disordered breathing has also been linked to these outcomes. Here, we review recent observational and experimental studies investigating the effect of poor sleep on cognitive outcomes and Alzheimer’s disease, and discuss possible mechanisms.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Sleep deprivation, Cognition, Memory, Dementia, Unsolved problems in neuroscience, Caregiving and dementia, Short

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Differentiating bipolar II disorder (BP II) from borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a common diagnostic dilemma. The purpose of this review is to focus on recent studies that have considered clinical differences between the conditions including family history, phenomenology, longitudinal course, comorbidity and treatment response, and which might advance their clinical distinction.

Concepts: Mental disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Bipolar disorder, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Personality disorder, Histrionic personality disorder

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Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is hypothesized to be a progressive neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia after repetitive head impacts. This review summarizes the recent evidence on CTE to highlight the facts currently known and the areas that remain poorly understood.

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The aim of this article is to review recent findings on the efficacy of ketogenic diet in preclinical models and in patients with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight emerging evidence for compromised glucose and energy metabolism in schizophrenia, which provides a strong rationale and a potential mechanism of action for ketogenic diet.

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Physical activity has established the efficacy in improving physical health, mental health and cognition in the general population. Recent research has examined its potential as a preventive measure and/or adjunctive treatment for various mental health conditions. This review summarizes the recent evidence for physical activity in the management of major mental illnesses.

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Eating disorders - anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder - affect numerous Europeans. This narrative review summarizes European studies on their prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, course, consequences, and risk factors published in 2015 and the first half of 2016.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Anorexia nervosa, Eating disorders, Vomiting, Bulimia nervosa, Maudsley Family Therapy, Binge eating, Binge eating disorder