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Journal: Current opinion in psychiatry


In order to consider findings about the relationship between spirituality, religiosity and personality disorders, recent research was reviewed and emerging patterns in the latest findings were explored.

Concepts: Personality disorder


We aimed to review literature on the efficacy and tolerability of psychosocial and psychopharmacological interventions in youth with early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (EOS). A rationale for pragmatic psychopharmacology in EOS, including dosing, switching and adverse effect monitoring and management, is provided.

Concepts: Pharmacology


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To systematize existing data and review new findings on the cause of schizophrenia and outline an improved mixed model of schizophrenia risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple and variable genetic and environmental factors interact to influence the risk of schizophrenia. Both rare variants with large effect and common variants with small effect contribute to genetic risk of schizophrenia, with no indication for differential impact on its clinical features. Accumulating evidence supports a genetic architecture of schizophrenia with multiple scenarios, including additive polygenic, heterogeneity, and mixed polygenic-heterogeneity. The epigenetic mechanisms that mediate gene-environment (GxE) interactions provide a framework to incorporate environmental factors into models of schizophrenia risk. Environmental pathogens with small effect on risk have robust effects in the context of family history of schizophrenia. Hence, genetic risk for schizophrenia may be expressed in part as sensitivity to environmental factors. SUMMARY: We propose an improved mixed model of schizophrenia risk in which abnormal epigenetic states with large effects are superimposed on a polygenic liability to schizophrenia. This scenario can account for GxE interactions and shared family environment, which in many cases are not explained by a single structural variant of large effect superimposed on polygenes (the traditional mixed model).

Concepts: Genetics, Gene expression, Epigenetics, Environment, Structure, Effectiveness, Genomic imprinting, Paramutation


To provide an update of recent studies relevant for maintenance treatment with antipsychotic medication after a first psychotic episode (FEP).


What is the relationship between rationality and mental health? By considering the psychological literature on depressive realism and unrealistic optimism, it was hypothesized that, in the context of judgments about the self, accurate cognitions are psychologically maladaptive and inaccurate cognitions are psychologically adaptive. Recent studies recommend being cautious in drawing any general conclusion about the style of thinking and mental health.

Concepts: Psychology, Cognition, Cognitive science, Philosophy of mind, Mind, Thought, Philosophy, Reasoning


Stress exacerbates mental illnesses such as depression but also appears to increase risk of dementia, suggesting a common mechanism for development of stress-induced affective and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this review is to address the question of whether anxiety ‘damages’ the brain, and to identify potential mechanisms for the link between stress and neuropsychiatric illness.

Concepts: Psychology, Medicine, Brain, Illness, Neurology, Mind, Psychiatry, Depression


This review discusses recent findings from epidemiological surveys of traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) globally, including their prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in the community.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Psychological trauma, Complex post-traumatic stress disorder, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Stress


With depressive disorders the leading source of disability globally, the identification of new targets for prevention and management is imperative. A rapidly emerging field of research suggests that the microbiome-gut-brain axis is of substantial relevance to mood and behaviour. Similarly, unhealthy diet has recently emerged as a significant correlate of and risk factor for depression. This review provides evidence for the gut microbiota as a key factor mediating the link between diet and depressive illness.

Concepts: Gut flora, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder, Major depressive disorder, Mood disorder, Mental status examination, Depression, Sickness behavior


Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth aged 10-24 years old globally, but detecting those at risk is challenging. Novel preventive strategies with wide influence across populations are required. Interest in the potential for both detrimental and supportive influences of social media/internet use on suicidal behaviour has been growing; however, the relationship remains unclear.


Well-functioning romantic relationships are important for long-term health and well being, but they are often difficult to sustain. This difficulty arises (in part) because of an underlying tension between our psychobiological natures, culture/environment, and modern love and relationship goals. One possible solution to this predicament is to intervene at the level of psychobiology, enhancing partners' interpersonal connection through neurochemical modulation. This article focuses on a single, promising biobehavioral sub-system for such intervention: the attachment system, based largely upon the expression of the neuropeptide oxytocin. Could the exogenous administration of oxytocin - under the right conditions - be used to facilitate relational or marital well being?

Concepts: Psychology, Interpersonal relationship, Intervention, Love, Attachment theory, French Revolution, Human bonding, Interpersonal relationships