SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology

28

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP) is the main cause of primary food allergy in adults living in the Mediterranean area. The way allergic patients get sensitized to this protein is all but established, and the clinical expression of sensitization is extremely variable, ranging from long-lasting symptomless sensitization to severe anaphylaxis. Such variability is seemingly due to the presence/absence of a number of cofactors. RECENT FINDINGS: The possibility that LTP sensitization occurs via the inhalation of LTP-containing pollen particles seems unlikely; in contrast, peach particles containing the protein seem able to sensitize both via the airways and the skin. Cosensitization to pollen allergens as well as to labile plant food allergens makes LTP allergy syndrome less severe. In some LTP sensitized subjects clinical food allergy occurs only in the presence of cofactors such as exercise, NSAIDs, or chronic urticaria. SUMMARY: Lipid transfer protein allergy syndrome shows some peculiarities that are unique in the primary food allergy panorama: geographical distribution, frequent asymptomatic sensitization, frequent need for cofactors, and reduced severity when pollen allergy is present. Future studies will have to address these points as the results may have favorable effects on other, more severe, types of food allergy.

Concepts: Eric Kandel, Eczema, Allergen immunotherapy, Sensitization, Allergology, Allergy, Food allergy, Asthma

28

This article gives an overview about the current state of preclinical and clinical studies using different kinds of adjuvants and their effect on allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT).

Concepts: Medical statistics, The Current, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Effectiveness, Pre-clinical development, Clinical trial

28

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Siglec-8 and Siglec-F are single pass transmembrane inhibitory receptors found on the surface of human and mouse eosinophils, respectively, but very little is known about their physiologic glycan ligands. This article reviews the latest knowledge on this topic and outlines the strategies being used to further define the production and glycobiochemical nature of these molecules in the lung. RECENT FINDINGS: Both Siglec-8 and Siglec-F recognize the same glycan structure, namely 6'-sulfated sialyl Lewis X, as determined using glycan array technologies. Studies have identified α2,3-linked sialylated glycoprotein structures localized to mouse airway epithelium in tissue sections, where their constitutive expression requires the specific sialyltransferase St3gal3. Expression of these ligands in lung is enhanced during allergic inflammation and by cytokines such as IL-13, and is maintained in primary air-liquid interface cultures of mouse lung epithelium. Further characterization suggests that they are high molecular weight sialylated proteins, putatively mucins. By combining analytic glycomics, glycoproteomic mapping, and further in-vitro eosinophil experimentation including the ability of candidate structures to enhance eosinophil apoptosis, a finely detailed appreciation of the structural requirements for productive Siglec-8 and Siglec-F engagement should soon emerge. SUMMARY: An enhanced understanding of Siglec-F, Siglec-8, and their ligands should improve our understanding of endogenous lung pathways limiting the survival of eosinophils within the airway in diseases such as asthma. Knowledge of this biology may also result in novel opportunities for drug development involving glycans and glycomimetics that selectively bind to Siglec-8 and induce eosinophil death.

Concepts: Epithelium, Glycan, Oligosaccharides, Glycomics, CD15, Sialyl lewis x, Immune system, Asthma

26

Research on atopic dermatitis is actively growing and continuously completing our knowledge on the pathophysiology of this complex disease.

Concepts: Atopic dermatitis, Atopy

25

The purpose is to review evidence from recent clinical trials that focus on early life interventions to prevent the onset of eczema and food allergy.

Concepts: ClinicalTrials.gov, Avicenna, The Canon of Medicine, Food allergy, Asthma, Eczema, Allergy

24

This review will catalog the many recent longitudinal studies that have investigated the relationship between asthma and lung function, or the persistence and trajectories of lung function deficits.

Concepts: Emphysema, Pneumonia, Spirometry, Pulmonology, Epidemiology, Lung, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Asthma

22

The prevalence of obesity and allergic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, is increasing worldwide not only in adults, but also in children. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the effect of obesity not only on asthma, but also on other allergic diseases.

22

To provide an overview of the mechanistic and clinical evidence for the use of nonspecific immunomodulators in paediatric respiratory tract infection (RTI) and wheezing/asthma prophylaxis.

Concepts: Infection, Medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Inflammation, Immune system, Upper respiratory tract infection

6

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A novel form of anaphylaxis has been described that is due to IgE antibody (Ab) directed against a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Ongoing work regarding the cause and distribution of this IgE response is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Our recent work has identified a novel IgE Ab response that has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: immediate-onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab and delayed-onset anaphylaxis 3-6 h after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g. beef and pork). Further studies strongly suggested that tick bites were a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE Ab responses to alpha-gal in the United States and internationally. SUMMARY: Large numbers of patients with IgE Ab to alpha-gal continue to be identified in the USA and globally. Clinicians should be aware of this IgE response as the reactions often appear to be idiopathic because of the significant delay between eating mammalian meat and the appearance of symptoms.

Concepts: Nutrition, Milk, Food, Pork, Allergy, Immune system, Meat, United States

4

Asthma prevalence and severity are greater in women than in men, and mounting evidence suggests this is in part related to female steroid sex hormones. Of these, estrogen has been the subject of much study. This review highlights recent research exploring the effects of estrogen in allergic disease.

Concepts: Atopy, Woman, Female, Gender, Immune system, Estrogen, Asthma, Allergy