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Journal: Critical reviews in food science and nutrition

29

The aim of the present review article is to summarize the available information related to the availability, production, chemical composition, pharmacological activity, and traditional uses of Avena sativa to highlight its potential to contribute to human health. Oats are now cultivated worldwide and form an important dietary staple for the people in number of countries. Several varieties of oats are available. It is a rich source of protein, contains a number of important minerals, lipids, β-glucan, a mixed-linkage polysaccharide, which forms an important part of oat dietary fiber, and also contains various other phytoconstituents like avenanthramides, an indole alkaloid-gramine, flavonoids, flavonolignans, triterpenoid saponins, sterols, and tocols. Traditionally oats have been in use since long and are considered as stimulant, antispasmodic, antitumor, diuretic, and neurotonic. Oat possesses different pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, anticholesterolaemic, etc. A wide spectrum of biological activities indicates that oat is a potential therapeutic agent.

Concepts: Nutrition, Oat, Rolled oats, Avena

28

Cumin is a seed spice belonging to the family umbelliferae. Cumin and value added products from cumin are used in food flavoring and perfumery. Cumin contains volatile oil (3-4%), cuminaldehyde, the major active principle, which is present to an extent of 45-50%. Cumin and value added products from cumin, viz., cumin oil and oleoresin are exported. Cumin powder forms the main component of many spice mixes and curry powders. Cuminaldehyde is an important phytochemical and possesses many health benefits. Alcohol and water extract of cumin are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties like antiallergic, antioxidant, anti-platelet aggregation, and hypoglycemic. Cumin and value added products from cumin can be a good source of nutraceuticals with many biological activities. Incorporation of cumin into food products will have the benefits of a flavorant and nutraceutical at the same time. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of cumin and its components are discussed.

Concepts: Nutrition, Value added, Apiaceae, Essential oil, Caraway, Cumin, Coriander, Curry powder

28

The importance of probiotics and their live delivery in the gastrointestinal tract has gained much importance in the recent past. Many reports have indicated that there is poor viability of probiotic bacteria in dairy based products, both fermented and non-fermented, and also in the human gastro-intestinal system is questionable. In this case, microencapsulation is the most significant emerging and efficient technology that is being used for the preservation of probiotics against adverse environmental conditions. Apart from different techniques of microencapsulation, various types of encapsulating materials are also used for the process, namely, alginate, chitosan, carrageenan, gums (locust bean, gellan gum, xanthan gum, etc.), gelatin, whey protein, starch, and compression coating. Each one of the encapsulating materials has its own unique characteristics of capsule formation and provision of shape, appearance, and strength to microbeads. The type of encapsulating material also influences the viability of probiotics during storage, processing, and in the gastrointestinal tract. The effectiveness of any material depends not upon its capsule forming capability, strength, and enhancing viability but also on its cheapness, availability, and biocompatibility. So, added convenience and reduced packaging costs may also be used to offset the cost of encapsulating one or more ingredients. Encapsulated forms of ingredients provide a longer shelf life for the product.

Concepts: Digestive system, Milk, Polysaccharide, E number, Digestion, Gums, Polysaccharides, Edible thickening agents

27

There is increasing evidence that the portion sizes of many foods have increased and in a laboratory at least this increases the amount eaten. The conclusions are, however, limited by the complexity of the phenomenon. There is a need to consider meals freely chosen over a prolonged period when a range of foods of different energy densities are available. A range of factors will influence the size of the portion size chosen: amongst others packaging, labeling, advertising, and the unit size rather than portion size of the food item. The way portion size interacts with the multitude of factors that determine food intake needs to be established. In particular, the role of portion size on energy intake should be examined as many confounding variables exist and we must be clear that it is portion size that is the major problem. If the approach is to make a practical contribution, then methods of changing portion sizes will need to be developed. This may prove to be a problem in a free market, as it is to be expected that customers will resist the introduction of smaller portion sizes, given that value for money is an important motivator.

Concepts: Nutrition, Eating, Food, Meal, Energy density

27

Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

Concepts: Nutrition, Antioxidant, Food, Dehydration, Vegetable, Food preservation, Dried fruit, Pear

27

Wine aging is an important process to produce high-quality wines. Traditionally, wines are aged in oak barrel aging systems. However, due to the disadvantages of the traditional aging technology, such as lengthy time needed, high cost, etc., innovative aging technologies have been developed. These technologies involve aging wines using wood fragments, application of micro-oxygenation, aging on lees, or application of some physical methods. Moreover, wine bottling can be regarded as the second phase of wine aging and is essential for most wines. Each technology can benefit the aging process from different aspects. Traditional oak barrel aging technology is the oldest and widely accepted technology. The application of wood fragments and physical methods are promising in accelerating aging process artificially, while application of micro-oxygenation and lees is reliable to improve wine quality. This paper reviews recent developments of the wine aging technologies. The impacts of operational parameters of each technology on wine quality during aging are analyzed, and comparisons among these aging technologies are made. In addition, several strategies to produce high-quality wines in a short aging period are also proposed.

Concepts: Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Oak, Chardonnay, Sangiovese, Chilean wine

27

Abstract Skin is the largest organ of the body and is constantly exposed to physical, chemical, bacterial and fungal challenges. It is well known that probiotics are helpful for specific disorders and different clinical studies have indicated that probiotics have special effects in cutaneous apparatus directly or indirectly which can be considerable from versatile aspects. Probiotic bacteriotherapy can have great potentials in preventing and treating the skin diseases including eczema, atopic dermatitis, acne, allergic inflammation or in skin hypersensitivity, UV-induced skin damage, wound protection and cosmetic products. The current article comprehensively reviews the different health effects of probiotics on the skin.

Concepts: Immune system, Gut flora, Asthma, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Skin, Eczema

26

Abstract Ready-to-eat (RTE) muscle foods refer to a general category of meat and poultry products that are fully cooked and consumable without reheating. These products, including whole and sliced pork, beef, turkey, chicken, and variety meats, in the forms of ham, roast, rolls, sausage, and frankfurter, are widely available in the delicatessen section of retail stores or various food service outlets. However, difficulties in avoidance of contamination by foodborne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes, during product post-lethality repackaging render RTE meats labile to outbreaks. Accordingly, the USDA-FSIS has established processing guidelines and regulations, which are constantly updated, to minimize foodborne pathogens in RTE products. Technologies that complement good manufacturing practice have been developed to control RTE meat safety. Among them, various antimicrobial product formulations, post-packaging pasteurization (thermal and nonthermal), and antimicrobial packaging, are being used. Through these efforts, outbreaks linked to RTE meat consumption have substantially reduced in recent years. However, the pervasive and virulent nature of L. monocytogenes and the possible presence of other cold-tolerant pathogens entail continuing developments of new intervention technologies. This review updates existing and emerging physical and chemical methods and their mode of action to inactivate or inhibit threatening microorganisms in RTE muscle foods.

Concepts: Nutrition, Microbiology, Beef, Meat, Listeria monocytogenes, Pork, Food safety, Sausage

25

Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This article reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices.

Concepts: Natural selection, Bacteria, Organism, Microbiology, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria, Food preservation, Food additive

25

Wine is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages in the world although it is mainly consumed in European and South American Countries. Several thousand years is passed since the product of grape fermentation was accidentally discovered. Over the last 100-150 years, wine making has been completely revolutionised in terms of procedures and equipment. This work was aimed to give a comprehensive overview on of consolidated use but also on winemaking innovations still in the development step or already applied to commercial products. Their effects on physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of wines will be also discussed in comparison with those of the consolidate vinification procedures.

Concepts: Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Oenology, Alcoholic beverage, Fermentation, Acids in wine, Winemaking