SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: ClinicoEconomics and outcomes research : CEOR

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Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral illness with the world’s fastest rate of infection. In 2014, Vietnam had recorded 43,000 cases in 53 provinces, with 28 deaths.

Concepts: Malaria, Infection, Ribavirin, Aspirin, Fever, Dengue fever, Vietnam, Wang Hongwei

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Paclitaxel and docetaxel are commonly used for metastatic breast cancer in the People’s Republic of China. To improve the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel, an albumin-bound formulation (nab) is now available in the People’s Republic of China (Abraxane(®)). To provide health economic data for the key stakeholders, a cost-utility analysis comparing nab-paclitaxel to docetaxel, both as alternatives to paclitaxel, was conducted.

Concepts: Health economics, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, People's Republic of China, Republic of China, North Korea

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Ticagrelor demonstrated a significant reduction in major cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with clopidogrel in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in ACS patients from the perspective of the Canadian publicly funded health care system.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Health economics, Avicenna, Clopidogrel, Illness, Acute coronary syndrome

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Lost productivity is often excluded from economic evaluations, which may lead to an underestimation of the societal benefits of treatment. However, there are multiple challenges in reliably estimating and reporting productivity losses. This article explores the main challenges, ie, selecting an appropriate valuation method (ie, human capital, friction cost, or multiplier), avoiding double counting, and accounting for equity. It also discusses the use of presenteeism instruments and their application in clinical trials, with a specific focus on their relevance in individuals with mood disorders. Further research and discussion is required on the development of reliable techniques for measuring and valuing productivity changes due to presenteeism.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Costs, Economics, Cost, Religion, Social capital, Productivity, Mood

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Although published meta-analyses demonstrate patient survival may be improved if enteral nutrition (EN) is provided to critically ill patients within 24 hours of injury or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), these publications did not investigate the impact of early EN on measures of health care resource consumption and total costs.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Health, Critical thinking, Patient, Intensive care medicine, Illness

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Fractures in elderly populations result from the combination of falls and osteoporosis. We report a systematic review of studies indexed in PubMed reporting annual rates of low-trauma falls and associated osteoporotic fractures among older community-dwelling people (age ≥ 50 years). An osteoporotic fracture was defined as either a fracture resulting from a low-impact fall in subjects with clinical osteoporosis, a fall resulting in an investigator-defined osteoporotic fracture, or a fall resulting in a low-trauma fracture. Rates are presented using descriptive statistics. Meta-analysis was conducted for statistically homogeneous data sets.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Epidemiology, Statistics, Bone fracture, Sociology, Data, Meta-analysis

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The aim of this study was to quantify the potential cost savings to Medicare of shifting the site of treatment for worsening heart failure (HF) from inpatient to outpatient (OP) settings for a subset of worsening HF episodes among the Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) population.

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The number needed to treat (NNT) is considered an intuitive as well as popular effect measure. The aims of this review were to 1) explain why we cannot compare trial-specific NNT estimates for the competing treatments evaluated in different randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 2) outline the principles of how relative treatment effects of different trials can be compared and results can be presented as NNT, without violating the principles of valid between-trial comparisons. Our premise is that ratio measures for relative treatment effects of response outcomes are less prone to effect modification than absolute difference measures of response outcomes. Accordingly, any between-trial comparisons of the efficacy of competing interventions using the study-specific ORs are less likely to be invalid or biased than comparisons based on the study-specific NNT estimates. However, treatment-specific ORs obtained from a meta-analysis or taken directly from an individual study can be transformed into consistent treatment-specific NNT estimates that allow for credible comparisons of treatments when these ratio measures are applied to the same reference response estimate. The theoretical discussion is illustrated with a relevant indirect comparison of biologics for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Between-trial comparisons directly based on the NNT of individual trials may result in erroneous conclusions and should be avoided. Treatment-specific NNT estimates need to be based on the same probability of response with the common reference treatment against which the interventions are compared.

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Medicare’s mandatory bundle for hip and knee arthroplasty necessitates provider accountability for quality and cost of care to 90 days, and wound closure may be a key area of consideration. The DERMABOND® PRINEO® Skin Closure System (22 cm) combines a topical skin adhesive with a self-adhering mesh without the need for dressing changes or suture or staple removal. This study estimated the budget impact of the Skin Closure System compared to other wound closure methods for hip and knee arthroplasty.

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The study objective was to develop an economic model to assess projected costs of lost productivity associated with premature deaths due to veno-occlusive disease (VOD)/ sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) with multiorgan dysfunction (MOD) among patients in the US who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) in 2013.