SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: ClinicoEconomics and outcomes research : CEOR

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Paclitaxel and docetaxel are commonly used for metastatic breast cancer in the People’s Republic of China. To improve the safety and efficacy of paclitaxel, an albumin-bound formulation (nab) is now available in the People’s Republic of China (Abraxane(®)). To provide health economic data for the key stakeholders, a cost-utility analysis comparing nab-paclitaxel to docetaxel, both as alternatives to paclitaxel, was conducted.

Concepts: Health economics, Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Chemotherapy, People's Republic of China, Republic of China, North Korea

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Ticagrelor demonstrated a significant reduction in major cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with clopidogrel in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in ACS patients from the perspective of the Canadian publicly funded health care system.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Health economics, Avicenna, Clopidogrel, Illness, Acute coronary syndrome

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Lost productivity is often excluded from economic evaluations, which may lead to an underestimation of the societal benefits of treatment. However, there are multiple challenges in reliably estimating and reporting productivity losses. This article explores the main challenges, ie, selecting an appropriate valuation method (ie, human capital, friction cost, or multiplier), avoiding double counting, and accounting for equity. It also discusses the use of presenteeism instruments and their application in clinical trials, with a specific focus on their relevance in individuals with mood disorders. Further research and discussion is required on the development of reliable techniques for measuring and valuing productivity changes due to presenteeism.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Costs, Economics, Cost, Religion, Social capital, Productivity, Mood

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Although published meta-analyses demonstrate patient survival may be improved if enteral nutrition (EN) is provided to critically ill patients within 24 hours of injury or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), these publications did not investigate the impact of early EN on measures of health care resource consumption and total costs.

Concepts: Health care, Health care provider, Medicine, Health, Critical thinking, Patient, Intensive care medicine, Illness

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Fractures in elderly populations result from the combination of falls and osteoporosis. We report a systematic review of studies indexed in PubMed reporting annual rates of low-trauma falls and associated osteoporotic fractures among older community-dwelling people (age ≥ 50 years). An osteoporotic fracture was defined as either a fracture resulting from a low-impact fall in subjects with clinical osteoporosis, a fall resulting in an investigator-defined osteoporotic fracture, or a fall resulting in a low-trauma fracture. Rates are presented using descriptive statistics. Meta-analysis was conducted for statistically homogeneous data sets.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Epidemiology, Statistics, Bone fracture, Sociology, Data, Meta-analysis

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Smoking drives substantial direct health care spending, comprising 8.7% ($168 billion) of annual United States aggregated spending. Smoking cessation (SC) prescription use is an effective strategy to improve health outcomes, increase quit rates, and reduce economic burden. However, patient out-of-pocket costs may limit the use. Health care payers play a vital role in driving use through formulary decisions and copayment policies but must consider both the near-term financial investment as well as downstream effects of increased coverage on health care budgets. This study estimates the return on investment (ROI) of providing Affordable Care Act (ACA)-recommended prescription SC coverage.

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The objectives of this study were to present trends in posaconazole use over time and describe selected outcomes among patients at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) by use and type of antifungal medicine.

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A rational use of statins has a major and increasing importance in public health and allocation of financial resources by the health insurance funds (HIFs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the market share and utilization trends of statins in the Republic of Macedonia (R. Macedonia) from 2013 to 2016.

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Lumbar discectomy patients with large annular defects are at a high risk for reherniation and reoperation, which could be mitigated through the use of an annular closure device (ACD). To identify the most effective treatment pathways for this high-risk population, it is critical to understand the clinical outcomes and socioeconomic costs among reoperated patients as well as the utility of ACD for minimizing reoperation risk.

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A decision-analytic model was developed to study the impact of induction regimens vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone (VAD); thalidomide, dexamethasone (TD); and bortezomib, dexamethasone (BorD), followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for treating multiple myeloma (MM) patients in Macedonia. Additionally, a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of treatment sequences to predict health effects and costs of different treatment sequences was performed.