SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinical therapeutics

273

Options for leveraging available telemedicine technologies, ranging from simple webcams and telephones to smartphone apps and medical-grade wearable sensors, are evolving faster than the culture of clinical research. Until recently, most clinical trials relied on paper-based processes and technology. This cost- and labor-intensive system, while slowly changing, remains an obstacle to new drug development. Alternatives that use existing tools and processes for collecting real-world data in home settings warrant closer examination.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Medical statistics, Avicenna, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Drug discovery, Drug development

152

Evidence suggests that clinical outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be improved through multifactorial treatment. The key challenges in the successful treatment of type 2 diabetes include maintaining tight glycemic control, minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia, controlling cardiovascular risk factors, and reducing or controlling weight. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the cost per patient achieving a composite clinical end point (glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, with no weight gain and no hypoglycemic events) in patients with type 2 diabetes in Quebec, Quebec, Canada, receiving liraglutide 1.2 mg, liraglutide 1.8 mg, thiazolidinedione, sulfonylurea, insulin glargine, sitagliptin, or exenatide.

Concepts: Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Hypoglycemia, Sulfonylurea

139

A high incidence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with significant medical costs. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation and diagnostic test results and procedures that exclude other conditions. This study was conducted to estimate the potential cost savings of a novel IBS diagnostic blood panel that tests for the presence of antibodies to cytolethal distending toxin B and anti-vinculin associated with IBS-D.

Concepts: Immune system, Diagnosis, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence

135

This report describes the safety, immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetic results of obiltoxaximab treatment in healthy subjects from 5 clinical trials.

Concepts: Health care, Pharmacology, Epidemiology, ClinicalTrials.gov

33

The US Food and Drug Administration has approved several omega-3 (OM3)-containing prescription drugs for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). However, there is still a need to develop formulations with high bioavailability irrespective of the fat content and time of the meal. OM3-phospholipid (PL)/free fatty acid (FFA) is an investigational drug for the treatment of severe HTG containing naturally derived krill oil mixture of OM3, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as PL esters and as FFA. Both forms in OM3-PL/FFA are believed to be readily bioavailable. Per gram, OM3-PL/FFA contains a lower dose of EPA/DHA in comparison with already approved prescription drugs. The study aim was to evaluate OM3-PL/FFA pharmacokinetic (PK) properties after single and multiple oral doses of 1, 2, and 4 g in healthy subjects when receiving a Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diet. The dose proportionality of the study drug, the effect of a high-fat (HF) meal on its PK properties and its safety profile after multiple administration were also explored.

30

We examined the safety profile and usability of an integrated advanced robotic device and telecare system to promote medication adherence for elderly home-care patients.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Prescription drug, Pharmaceutical drug, Usability, Usability testing, RITE Method

27

In the treatment of hypertension, once-daily administration of long-acting antihypertensive drugs has been recommended for the improvement of treatment adherence; however, it is unclear whether dividing daily doses has the additional benefit of more ideal blood pressure (BP) control over a 24-hour period.

Concepts: Blood pressure

27

BACKGROUND: Because of practical problems and ethical concerns, few studies of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of acetaminophen (ACET) in infants have been published. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to compare the PK of an ACET rectal suppository with a commercially available ACET elixir to complete a regulatory obligation to market the suppository. This study was not submitted previously because of numerous obstacles related to both the investigators and the commercial entities associated with the tested product. METHODS: Thirty infants (age 3-36 months) prescribed ACET for either fever, pain, or postimmunization prophylaxis of fever and discomfort were randomized to receive a single 10- to 15-mg/kg ACET dose either as the rectal suppository or oral elixir. Blood was collected at selected times for up to 8 hours after administration. ACET concentrations were measured by using a validated HPLC method, and PK behavior and bioavailability were compared for the 2 preparations. RESULTS: All 30 infants enrolled were prescribed ACET for postimmunization prophylaxis. PK samples were available in 27 of the 30 enrolled infants. Subject enrollment (completed in January 1995) was rapid (8.3 months) and drawn entirely from a vaccinated infant clinic population. There were no statistically significant differences between the subjects (elixir, n = 12; suppository, n = 15) in either mean (SD) age (10.0 [6.3] vs 12.4 [8.1] months), weight (8.6 [2.3] vs 9.4 [2.4] kg), sex (7 of 12 males vs 7 of 15 males), or racial distribution (5 white, 5 black, and 2 biracial vs 4 white and 11 black) between the 2 dosing groups (oral vs rectal, respectively). The oral and rectal preparations produced similar, rapid peak concentrations (T(max), 1.16 vs 1.17 hours; P = 0.98) and elimination t(½) (1.84 vs 2.10 hours; P = 0.14), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between either C(max) (7.65 vs 5.68 μg/mL) or total drug exposure (AUC(0-∞), 23.36 vs 20.45 μg-h/mL) for the oral versus rectal preparations. There were no serious treatment-related effects noted. Delays in submitting this work for publication were the result of a number of investigator and sponsor issues despite the study’s positive outcome. CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant differences were found between the rates or extent of absorption of the suppository and elixir preparations in this small, infant population. Both preparations were well tolerated. Vaccinated infants were a useful population in which to conduct a PK study of this antipyretic, analgesic product. Delays in publishing pediatric trials can occur as a result of a number of issues even when results are positive.

Concepts: Statistics, Statistical significance, Paracetamol, Pharmacokinetics, Rectum, Pessary, Suppository, Laxative

25

We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of topical bevacizumab 0.05% when used as an adjunctive therapy after excision of primary pterygia.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Efficacy, Pterygium, Popliteal pterygium syndrome

24

Vitamin D has been known to be involved in mineral and bone homeostasis for many years. In the past its main use was in treating osteoporosis and rickets. In recent years it was found that vitamin D is an immune-modulating agent and may also have a role in several diseases, including autoimmune diseases. The immune-modulating effects appear to be mediated by vitamin D interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) that has transcriptional effects and is expressed on various cell types, especially those of the immune system. Immunologic and rheumatologic diseases were the first to be studied, but at the moment the spotlight is on the interactions between tumor cells and vitamin D. This review focuses on four forms of cancer that apparently benefit from a vitamin D supplementation during treatment: prostate, breast, and colorectal cancers and melanoma. Several studies reported that differences exist between white and black patients, which we discuss in the review.

Concepts: Immune system, Vitamin D, Cancer, Apoptosis, Chemotherapy, Immunology, Humoral immunity, Immunity