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Journal: Clinical proteomics

43

Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive, almost uniformly fatal tumor, caused primarily by exposure to asbestos. In this study, serum presence of mesothelioma-specific protein transcript variants of ecto-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase disulfide-thiol exchanger 2 (ENOX2), a recently identified marker of malignancy, were investigated using the ONCOblot tissue of origin cancer detection test.

Concepts: DNA, Cancer, Oncology, Adenosine triphosphate, RNA, Mesothelioma, Asbestos, Asbestos and the law

9

Correct identification of the amyloidosis-causing protein is crucial for clinical management. Recently the Mayo Clinic reported laser-capture microdissection (LCM) with liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as a new diagnostic tool for amyloid diagnosis. Here, we report an independent implementation of this proteomic diagnostics method at the Princess Alexandra Hospital Amyloidosis Centre in Brisbane, Australia.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Diagnosis, Tandem mass spectrometry

5

Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has become a powerful tool for the identification and quantification of proteins from a wide variety of biological specimens. To date, the majority of studies utilizing tissue samples have been carried out on prospectively collected fresh frozen or optimal cutting temperature (OCT) embedded specimens. However, such specimens are often difficult to obtain, in limited in supply, and clinical information and outcomes on patients are inherently delayed as compared to banked samples. Annotated formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue specimens are available for research use from a variety of tissue banks, such as from the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) registries' residual tissue repositories. Given the wealth of outcomes information associated with such samples, the reuse of archived FFPE blocks for deep proteomic characterization with mass spectrometry technologies would provide a valuable resource for population-based cancer studies. Further, due to the widespread availability of FFPE specimens, validation of specimen integrity opens the possibility for thousands of studies that can be conducted worldwide.

4

Ebola virus like particles (EBOV VLPs, eVLPs), are produced by expressing the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (GP) and structural matrix protein VP40 in mammalian cells. When expressed, these proteins self-assemble and bud from ‘host’ cells displaying morphology similar to infectious virions. Several studies have shown that rodents and non-human primates vaccinated with eVLPs are protected from lethal EBOV challenge. The mucin-like domain of envelope glycoprotein GP1 serves as the major target for a productive humoral immune response. Therefore GP1 concentration is a critical quality attribute of EBOV vaccines and accurate measurement of the amount of GP1 present in eVLP lots is crucial to understanding variability in vaccine efficacy.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Protein, Microbiology, Virus, Vaccine, Vaccination, Immunology

4

N-1-(Deoxyfructosyl) valine (DFV) β-hemoglobin (β-Hb), commonly referred as HbA1c, is widely used diagnostic marker in diabetes, believed to provide glycemic status of preceding 90-120 days. However, the turnover of hemoglobin is about 120 days, the DFV-β-Hb, an early and reversible glycation product eventually may undergo irreversible advanced glycation modifications such as carboxymethylation or carboxyethylation. Hence quantification of N-1-(carboxymethyl) valine (CMV) and N-1-(carboxyethyl) valine (CEV) peptides of β-Hb would be useful in assessing actual glycemic status.

Concepts: Amino acid, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis, Diabetes, Fructose, Glycated hemoglobin, Glycation

3

During the last two decades, over 100 proteomics studies have identified a variety of potential biomarkers in CSF of Alzheimer’s (AD) patients. Although several reviews have proposed specific biomarkers, to date, the statistical relevance of these proteins has not been investigated and no peptidomic analyses have been generated on the basis of specific up- or down- regulation. Herein, we perform an analysis of all unbiased explorative proteomics studies of CSF biomarkers in AD to critically evaluate whether proteins and peptides identified in each study are consistent in distribution; direction change; and significance, which would strengthen their potential use in studies of AD pathology and progression.

3

MAP kinase inhibitor (MAPKi) therapy for BRAF mutated melanoma is characterized by high response rates but development of drug resistance within a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 9-12 months. Understanding mechanisms of resistance and identifying effective therapeutic alternatives is one of the most important scientific challenges in melanoma. Using proteomics, we want to specifically gain insight into the pathophysiological process of cerebral metastases.

Concepts: Signal transduction, Melanoma, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Extracellular signal-regulated kinases, Protein kinases

3

Proteomic analyses of clinical specimens often rely on human tissues preserved through formalin-fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE). Minimal sample consumption is the key to preserve the integrity of pathological archives but also to deal with minimal invasive core biopsies. This has been achieved by using the acid-labile surfactant RapiGest in combination with a direct trypsinization (DTR) strategy. A critical comparison of the DTR protocol with the most commonly used filter aided sample preparation (FASP) protocol is lacking. Furthermore, it is unknown how common histological stainings influence the outcome of the DTR protocol.

Concepts: Sample, Game theory, Cancer, Biology, Proteomics, Tissue, Order theory

3

Proteomics plays an increasingly important role in our quest to understand cardiovascular biology. Fueled by analytical and computational advances in the past decade, proteomics applications can now go beyond merely inventorying protein species, and address sophisticated questions on cardiac physiology. The advent of massive mass spectrometry datasets has in turn led to increasing intersection between proteomics and big data science. Here we review new frontiers in technological developments and their applications to cardiovascular medicine. The impact of big data science on cardiovascular proteomics investigations and translation to medicine is highlighted.

Concepts: Blood, Biology, Heart, Avicenna, Science, Engineering, Technology, Ibn al-Nafis

3

The dynamic field of neurosciences entails ever increasing search for molecular mechanisms of disease states, especially in the domain of neurodegenerative disorders. The previous century heralded the techniques in proteomics when indexing of the human proteomes relating to various disease conditions became important. Early stage research in certain diseases or pathological conditions requires a more holistic approach of first discovering the proteins of interest for the condition. Despite its limitations, proteomics is one of the most powerful techniques available to us today to dissect the molecular scenario in a particular disease situation. In this review we will discuss about the current clinical research in neurodegenerative disorders that employ proteomics techniques. We will specifically focus on our understanding of Alzheimer’s disease, traumatic spinal cord injury and neuromyelitis optica. Discussions will include ongoing worldwide research in these areas, research in India and specifically our laboratory in these domains of neurodegenerative conditions.

Concepts: Alzheimer's disease, Medicine, Neuron, Spinal cord, Clinical trial, Neuroscience, Neurology, Neurodegenerative disorders