SciCombinator

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Journal: Clinical medicine insights. Case reports

57

A 34-year-old obese male (96.8 kg; BMI, 30.2 kg m(-1)) volitionally undertook a 50-day fast with the stated goal of losing body mass. During this time, only tea, coffee, water, and a daily multivitamin were consumed. Severe and linear loss of body mass is recorded during these 50 days (final 75.4 kg; BMI, 23.5 kg m(-1)). A surprising resilience to effects of fasting on activity levels and physical function is noted. Plasma samples are suggestive of early impairment of liver function, and perturbations to cardiovascular dynamics are also noted. One month following resumption of feeding behavior, body weight was maintained (75.0 kg; BMI, 23.4 kg m(-1)). Evidence-based decision-making with the fasting or hunger striking patient is limited by a lack of evidence. This case report suggests that total body mass, not mass lost, may be a key observation in clinical decision-making during fasting and starvation.

Concepts: Obesity, Mass, Body mass index, Anorexia nervosa, Malnutrition, Body shape, Fasting, Weight

1

Extranodal lymphoma (ENL) occurs in approximately 30%-40% of all patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has been described in almost all organs and tissues. However, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common histological subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primarily arising in the retroperitoneal region. In this article, we report a rare case of an adult male diagnosed with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the gluteal and adductor muscles with aggressive bone involvement. All appropriate radiological and histopathological studies were done for diagnosis and staging. After discussion with the lymphoma multidisciplinary team, it was agreed to start on R-CHOP protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), vincristine (Oncovin®), and prednisone) as the standard of care, which was later changed to R-CODOX-M/R-IVAC protocol (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin®), doxorubicin, and high-dose methotrexate alternating with rituximab, ifosfamide, etoposide, and high-dose cytarabine) due to inadequate response. Due to the refractory aggressive nature of the disease, subsequent decision of the multidisciplinary team was salvage chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. The aim of this case report was to describe and evaluate the clinical presentation and important radiological features of extranodal lymphoma affecting the musculoskeletal system.

Concepts: Cancer, Chemotherapy, Types of cancer, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Chemotherapy regimens, Antineoplastic drugs

0

Nivolumab, a fully IgG4-programmed death-1 inhibitor antibody, led to improved overall survival compared with single-agent therapy in patients with platinum-refractory recurrent head and neck cancers. In general, nivolumab is used in inoperable patients. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of salvage surgery during nivolumab therapy for patients with head and neck cancer. We report the case of a woman treated with salvage reconstructive surgery during nivolumab therapy.

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Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a common virus that can cause nearly universal infection in infancy and early childhood. It typically manifests as an acute febrile illness. We describe a case of a premature infant with congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in place who developed intermittent fevers while she was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. She was ultimately diagnosed with acute HHV-6 meningitis. In addition to this report, we present a literature review regarding this virus’s potential modes of transmission and forms of clinical presentation in the neonatal period.

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A patient was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) in 2010. In March 2015, she had abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloody stool, and UC has relapsed. In June 2015, pain and sensory disturbance of both lower limbs appeared. Blood flow at the distal femoral artery was not confirmed with magnetic resonance angiography, and it was diagnosed as bilateral acute inferior limb ischemia. Arterial thrombolectomy with Fogarty’s balloon catheter was performed and blood flow was improved. The severity of UC was moderate with Mayo score 8. Thrombosis is considered to be a complication with a high incidence in inflammatory bowel disease. Reports of arterial thrombosis are very rare. It is important to evaluate the risk of bleeding and thrombosis in active or severe cases in UC and need to do thrombotic prophylactic treatment simultaneously with UC treatment.

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Adherence to medications is an important challenge while treating chronic disease such as resistant hypertension, which is defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite treatment with more than 3 antihypertensive drugs to achieve targets. It is possible that poor adherence is the most significant contributor to rates of pseudo-resistance among treated hypertensive patients. In this report, we describe 4 patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, who received intervention to promote adherence by pharmacists who set the prescribed medicines in a weekly medication calendar and conducted a weekly pill count. The results showed that the intervention of pharmacists to medication adherence improved systolic BP in patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension; however, further controlled trials are required to strengthen supporting evidence.

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Angiomyolipomas are rare benign tumors of the kidneys, with a risk of spontaneous hemorrhage including severe retroperitoneal bleedings. In this study, we report clinical outcomes of 5 patients who underwent 8 embolization sessions using 96% ethanol, as there is scarce data using this embolic agent for this indication. The primary angiographic success could be achieved in all but 1 lesion, which was not accessible due to vasospasm of the supplying vessel. Therapeutic success could be demonstrated in all treated cases for which follow-up imaging was available (n = 3). In 1 complex patient, a mildly reduced renal function, as well as a new onset of arterial hypertension was detected after treatment. Nontarget embolization of vital kidney tissue was demonstrated in another patient; it remained asymptomatic. Embolization therapy using 96% ethanol is an optional method to treat renal angiomyolipomas.

0

A variety of age-related problems, including salivary secretory disorders, poor oral motor coordination, neuromuscular weakness, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and structural changes, can result in swallowing disorders. Given that causes of dysphagia differ from patient to patient, individualized treatment plans tailored toward patients' specific conditions are needed. Here we present a case of an elderly woman with upper neck stiffness and dysphagia sought chiropractic treatment. Radiographic findings suggested cervical spondylosis with a vertical atlantoaxial subluxation. Following 20 sessions of chiropractic treatment, the patient experienced complete relief from neck problems and difficulty in swallowing. Rhythmic swallowing movements are controlled by a central pattern-generating circuit of the brain stem. In this case, the brain stem could have been compressed by the odontoid process of the axis due to C1/2 instability. Cervicogenic dysphagia is a cervical cause of difficulty in swallowing. Cervical complaints in the context of dysphagia are mostly under-estimated. A high degree of clinical suspicion is pivotal in timely intervention.

0

There are increased reports of pill-induced esophagitis in the past 2 decades, with almost 100 different substances identified as the cause for more than 700 cases, and the overall incidence is estimated to be 0.004% per year. Antibiotics are one of the major contributors for these cases, especially tetracycline and doxycycline; other major contributors are bisphosphonates, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and iron pills. Clindamycin is commonly prescribed by physicians, yet side effect in the form of esophagitis is uncommon and mostly documented in case report. It is possible that these cases are mostly unnoticed due to initial consideration of common and more serious problems. Thus, patients may be assumed to be having a severe episode of acid reflux, and it is not routinely reported or recognized. In this case series, we presented 8 patients with clindamycin-induced esophagitis. The initial presentation of all patients was odynophagia, which appeared within the first day of taking the antibiotic. All patients were subjected to endoscopic examination and ulcer was found in all cases, in the form of localized solitary or multiple ulcers with sharply defined borders. Patients were treated with proton pump inhibitor and sucralfate, and the symptoms subside within 1 week. Patient education regarding the proper way of ingesting drug seems to be the key factor in the prevention of pill-induced esophagitis. The prevention of esophagitis is even more important with antibiotics as adverse effect would decrease the patient compliance in completing the regimen and would ultimately increase antibiotic resistance.

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An emergency thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with zone 2 landing without revascularization of the left subclavian artery was performed due to the impending rupture of a distal arch aneurysm in an old patient presenting hemoptysis. Two months later, the patient had recurrent massive hemoptyses and continued after additional zone 0 TEVAR. The lung parenchyma was considered to be the bleeding source and transcatheter pulmonary artery embolization was performed, and the episodes of massive hemoptysis appeared to have ceased. However, the patient died of sudden recurrent massive hemoptysis 40 days later. Inflammation and/or infection of the lung parenchyma adjunct to the aortic aneurysm could be cause of fatal hemoptysis, and aggressive therapy such as lung resection should be considered in such patients.