SciCombinator

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Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

718

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first broke out in Wuhan (China) and subsequently spread worldwide. Chloroquine has been sporadically used in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine shares the same mechanism of action as chloroquine, but its more tolerable safety profile makes it the preferred drug to treat malaria and autoimmune conditions. We propose that the immunomodulatory effect of hydroxychloroquine also may be useful in controlling the cytokine storm that occurs late-phase in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of hydroxychloroquine in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

489

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to be mostly transmitted by medium-to-large sized respiratory droplets although airborne transmission is theoretically possible in healthcare settings involving aerosol-generating procedures. Exposure to respiratory droplets can theoretically be reduced by surgical mask usage. However, there is a lack of experimental evidence supporting surgical mask usage for prevention of COVID-19.

481

On 07/02/2020, French Health authorities were informed of a confirmed case of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in an Englishman infected in Singapore who had recently stayed in a chalet in the French Alps. We conducted an investigation to identify secondary cases and interrupt transmission.

367

We randomized 115 children to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or placebo. Over the following 9 months, TIV recipients had an increased risk of virologically-confirmed non-influenza infections (relative risk: 4.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-14.8). Being protected against influenza, TIV recipients may lack temporary non-specific immunity that protected against other respiratory viruses.

Concepts: Immune system, Virus, Vaccination, Innate immune system, Influenza, Avian influenza, English-language films, Influenza vaccine

359

Social distancing and stringent hygiene seem effective in reducing the number of transmitted virus particles, and therefore the infectivity, of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and could alter the mode of transmission of the disease. However, it is not known if such practices can change the clinical course in infected individuals.

283

 The 2014-15 influenza season was distinguished by an A(H3N2) epidemic of antigenically-drifted virus and vaccine containing identical components to 2013-14. We report 2014-15 vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates from Canada and explore contributing agent-host factors.

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Virus, Vaccine, Vaccination, Influenza, Avian influenza, Influenza vaccine

269

A well 6-month-old infant with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had persistently positive nasopharyngeal swabs to day 16 of admission. This case highlights the difficulties in establishing the true incidence of COVID-19 as asymptomatic individuals can excrete the virus. These patients may play important roles in human-to-human transmission in the community.

241

Transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in schools is unknown. Our investigations especially in pre-schools could not detect SARS-CoV-2 transmission despite screening of symptomatic and asymptomatic children. The data suggests that children are not the primary drivers of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools and could help inform exit strategies for lifting of lockdowns.

207

We investigated the evolution and epidemiology of a novel livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain, which colonizes and infects urban-dwelling Danes even without a Danish animal reservoir. Genetic evidence suggests both poultry and human adaptation, with poultry meat implicated as a probable source.

Concepts: Bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Meat, Livestock, Adaptation, Charles Darwin, Poultry

205

Since December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 virus has extended to most parts of China with more than 80 thousand cases and to at least 100 countries with more than 60 thousand international cases by March 15, 2020. Here we applied household cohort study to determine the features of household transmission of COVID-19.