SciCombinator

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Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

270

 The 2014-15 influenza season was distinguished by an A(H3N2) epidemic of antigenically-drifted virus and vaccine containing identical components to 2013-14. We report 2014-15 vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates from Canada and explore contributing agent-host factors.

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Virus, Vaccine, Vaccination, Influenza, Avian influenza, Influenza vaccine

207

We investigated the evolution and epidemiology of a novel livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain, which colonizes and infects urban-dwelling Danes even without a Danish animal reservoir. Genetic evidence suggests both poultry and human adaptation, with poultry meat implicated as a probable source.

Concepts: Bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Meat, Livestock, Adaptation, Charles Darwin, Poultry

176

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a leading cause of visits to physicians and of antibiotic prescriptions for young children. We systematically reviewed studies on all-cause AOM episodes and physician visits in which impact was attributed to pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, either as efficacy or effectiveness. Of 18 relevant publications found, most used the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM). The efficacy of 7vCRM against all-cause AOM episodes or visits was 0%-9% in randomized trials and 17%-23% in nonrandomized trials. In observational database studies, physician visits for AOM were already declining in the 3-5 years before 7vCRM introduction (mean change, -15%; range, +14% to -24%) and continued to decline afterward (mean, -19%; range, +7% to -48%). This vaccine provides some protection against OM, but other factors have also contributed to the recent decline in OM incidence. Future effectiveness studies should thus use better-controlled methods to estimate the true impact of vaccination on AOM.

Concepts: Medicine, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Vaccine, Vaccination, Randomized controlled trial, Vaccination schedule, Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Otitis media

154

We randomized 115 children to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) or placebo. Over the following 9 months, TIV recipients had an increased risk of virologically-confirmed non-influenza infections (relative risk: 4.40; 95% confidence interval: 1.31-14.8). Being protected against influenza, TIV recipients may lack temporary non-specific immunity that protected against other respiratory viruses.

Concepts: Immune system, Virus, Vaccination, Innate immune system, Influenza, Avian influenza, English-language films, Influenza vaccine

113

Prophylactic HPV-vaccination programs constitute major public-health initiatives worldwide. We assessed the global effect of 4vHPV vaccination on HPV infection and disease. PubMed and Embase were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles from January-2007 through February-2016 to identify observational studies reporting the impact or effectiveness of 4vHPV vaccination on infection, anogenital warts, and cervical cancer or precancerous lesions. Over the last decade, the impact of HPV-vaccination in real-world settings has become increasingly evident, especially among girls vaccinated before HPV exposure in countries with high vaccine uptake. Maximal reductions of ∼90% for HPV 6/11/16/18 infection, ∼90% for genital warts, ∼60% for low-grade cytological cervical abnormalities, and ∼90% for high-grade histologically-proven cervical abnormalities have been reported. The full public-health potential of HPV vaccination is not yet realized. HPV-related disease remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in developing and developed nations, underscoring the need for HPV-vaccination programs with high population coverage.

Concepts: Immune system, Human papillomavirus, Cervical cancer, Papillomavirus, HPV vaccine, Gardasil, Anal cancer, Genital wart

80

The impact of healthcare personnel hand contamination in multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) transmission is important and well studied; however, the role of patient hand contamination needs to be characterized further.

79

Rising macrolide and quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium necessitate new treatment approaches. We evaluated outcomes of sequential antimicrobial therapy for M.genitalium guided by a macrolide-resistance assay.

68

 More than 300 million travelers visit regions with poor hygiene annually. A significant percentage of them become colonized by resistant intestinal bacteria such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) and may transmit the strains to others and to medical care settings when they return home. Despite the threats to global healthcare caused by an upsurge in antimicrobial resistance, no effort has been centered on prevention of colonization while traveling.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Public health, Health, Bacteria, Microbiology, Antibiotic resistance, Escherichia coli

66

Cultural and social determinants influence antibiotic decision-making in hospitals. We investigated and compared cultural determinants of antibiotic decision-making in acute medical and surgical specialties.

66

 Vaccines are among the safest medical products in use today. Hundreds of millions of vaccinations are administered in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are uncommon. However, temporally associated deaths can occur following vaccination. To characterize main causes of death among reports submitted to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous vaccine safety surveillance system.

Concepts: Immune system, Malaria, Vaccine, Vaccination, Louis Pasteur