SciCombinator

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Journal: Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association

169

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the long-term outcomes of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who have a complete response to therapy with azathioprine. We assessed the long-term effects of azathioprine in responders. METHODS: We collected data from the MICISTA registry (a database from the Rothschild and Saint-Antoine Hospitals in Paris, France) on consecutive CD patients treated with azathioprine 1987-1999 who responded to therapy (steroid-free clinical remission at 1 year); they were followed until 2011 (n=220; 86 male; median age 32 years; median follow-up period, 12.6 years). Data were compared with those from 440 matched patients with CD who did not receive immunosuppressants during the same period of inclusion (controls). RESULTS: The cumulative rate of sustained remission 10 years after treatment with azathioprine was 3%. Among patients exposed to azathioprine during a prospective follow-up period (1995-2011, 1936 patient-years), the percent of patient-years with active disease (flare or complication during the calendar year) was 17.6%. Compared to the control group, at baseline, responders were more often active smokers with significantly more extensive disease, perianal lesions, and extra-digestive manifestations. During follow-up, responders had a significantly reduced risk of intestinal surgery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52-0.91) and of perianal surgery (AOR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.27-0.46). A significantly higher percentage of responders developed cancers, including non-melanoma skin cancers, compared with controls (9.5% vs 4.1%;P <.01). Survival rates after 20 years were 92.8%±2.3% of responders vs 97.9%±0.8% of controls ( P =.01). CONCLUSION: Based on a study at a single center, patients with CD that responds to azathioprine have a smaller proportion of patient-years with active disease, and are less likely to be hospitalized or undergo intestinal surgery, than patients with CD who did not receive immunosuppressants. These benefits, however, could be offset by increased risk of malignancies.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Hospital, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Gastroenterology, Normal distribution, Malabsorption

143

The efficacy and safety of vedolizumab, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody against the integrin α4β7, was demonstrated in multicenter, phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trials in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn’s disease. We analyzed data from 1 of these trials to determine the effects of vedolizumab therapy in patients with UC, based on past exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents.

Concepts: Monoclonal antibodies, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colon, Colitis, Infliximab, Abdominal pain, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

91

Several meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of psychological therapies for reducing gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, no meta-analysis has investigated the duration of these effects. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the immediate, short-term, and long-term efficacy of psychotherapy for reducing GI symptoms in adults with IBS.

Concepts: Time, Systematic review, Gastroenterology, Educational psychology, Irritable bowel syndrome, Flatulence, Meta-analysis, Term

46

There is debate over the existence of nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms in response to ingestion of gluten-containing foods by people without celiac disease or wheat allergy. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial to determine the effects of administration of low doses of gluten to subjects with suspected NCGS.

Concepts: Wheat, Spelt, Maize, Coeliac disease, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Wheat allergy, Gliadin

40

BACKGROUND: & Aims: The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been reported to produce beneficial effects for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, but these have not been investigated in controlled trials. We performed a prospective trial to determine whether cannabis can induce remission in patients with Crohn’s disease. METHODS: We studied 21 patients (mean age 40±14 years, 13 male) with Crohn’s Disease and activity index (CDAI) scores >200 who did not respond to therapy with steroids, immunomodulators, or anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents. Patients were randomly assigned to groups given cannabis, twice daily, in the form of cigarettes containing 11.5 mg of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or placebo containing cannabis flowers from which the THC had been extracted. Disease activity and laboratory tests were assessed during 8 weeks of treatment and 2 weeks thereafter. RESULTS: Complete remission (a CDAI score <150) was achieved by 5/11 subjects in the cannabis group (45%) and 1/10 in the placebo group (10%; P=.43). A clinical response (a decrease in CDAI score of >100) was observed in 10/11 subjects in the cannabis group (90%; from 330±105 to 152±109) and 4/10 in the placebo group (40%; from 373±94 to 306±143; P=.028). Three patients in the cannabis group were weaned from steroid dependency. Subjects receiving cannabis reported improved appetite and sleep, with no significant side effects. CONCLUSION: Although the primary endpoint of the study (induction of remission) was not achieved, a short course (8 week) of THC-rich cannabis produced significant clinical, steroid-free benefits to 11 patients with active CD, compared to placebo, without side effects. Further studies, with larger patient groups and a non-smoking mode of intake, are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01040910.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Inflammatory bowel disease, Placebo, Cannabis, Cannabis sativa

28

In patients with celiac disease, gluten-induced lesions of the small-bowel mucosa develop gradually. However, it is not clear whether clinical presentation correlates with the degree of mucosal damage based on histology analysis. We investigated whether the degree of mucosal damage to the small bowel correlates with clinical presentation and serum markers of celiac disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Auerbach's plexus, Mucous membrane, Lamina propria

28

Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is an emergency with a high mortality rate; survivors have high rates of intestinal failure. We performed a prospective study to assess a multidisciplinary and multimodal management approach, focused on intestinal viability.

Concepts: Mortality rate, Rates, Management, Project management, Planning, Mortality displacement, Plan, Mesenteric ischemia

28

Although belching and hiccups are regarded as normal behaviors, they can occur at high frequency or become persistent, becoming bothersome and requiring medical care. Patients with excessive belching frequently have supragastric belches. Excessive belching should be treated as a behavioral disorder. Persistent hiccups, however, can be the first presentation of a serious disorder that requires extensive diagnostic testing. When no cause is found, only the symptoms can be treated. Aerophagia is an episodic or chronic disorder in which patients (children and adults) swallow large quantities of air, which accumulate in the gastrointestinal tract to cause abdominal distention and bloating. These patients should not undergo explorative laparotomy because they do not have ileus. New treatment approaches are needed for patients with aerophagia.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical terms, Digestive system, Gastroenterology, Behavior, Abdomen, Aerophagia, Bloating

27

The high costs of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents to treat chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have resulted in denials of treatment, but it is not clear whether patients' access to these therapies differs with their type of insurance.

Concepts: Medicine, Virus, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis C virus

27

Pancreatitis is the most common serious complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We performed a pilot study to determine whether aggressive peri-procedural hydration with lactated Ringer’s solution reduces the incidence of pancreatitis following ERCP.

Concepts: Intravenous fluids, Lactic acid, Lactated Ringer's solution, Acute pancreatitis, Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy, Saline, Hartmann's Solution