Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinical endoscopy


We report our experience with a case of stomach perforation after accidental ingestion of liquid nitrogen. A 13-year-old boy ate a snack at an amusement park and began to complain of sudden onset of severe abdominal pain with shortness of breath. It was determined that the snack he had ingested had been cooled with liquid nitrogen. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and a chest X-ray showed a large volume of pneumoperitoneum. During surgery, a 4-cm perforation of the angularis incisura of the stomach was identified. Primary repair and omentopexy was performed. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Ingestion, Digestive system, Mouth, Radiography, Abdominal pain, Stomach, Abdomen


Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT.

Concepts: Cancer, Gut flora, Nutrition, Infection, Obesity, Constipation, Clostridium difficile, Chronic fatigue syndrome


With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome.

Concepts: Stroke, Neurology, Feeding tube, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Motor neuron, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Gastrostomy, Enteral feeding


The use of moderate to deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has increased in Europe considerably. Because this level of sedation is a risky medical procedure, a number of international guidelines have been developed. This survey aims to review if, and if so which, quality aspects have been included in new sedation practices when compared to traditional uncontrolled sedation practices.

Concepts: Procedural sedation, Sedation, Endoscopy


Strongyloides stercoralis is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions, and infections are usually asymptomatic. However, immunocompromised patients, such as those receiving immunosuppressive therapy, high-dose steroids, or chemotherapy, can develop fatal hyperinfections. An 84-year-old man without any symptoms was diagnosed with strongyloidiasis during a regular screening colonoscopy. His medical history only involved a gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer 6 months previously. Few cases have been published about asymptomatic strongyloidiasis diagnosed in an immunocompetent host via endoscopic mucosal resection with characteristic colonoscopic findings. We report a case of colon-involved asymptomatic strongyloidiasis with specific colonic findings of yellowish-white nodules. This finding may be an important marker of S. stercoralis infection, which could prevent hyperinfections.


Early removal of a percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube commonly causes pneumoperitoneum. However, we encountered a patient who developed pneumoperitoneum even with an indwelling PTBD tube. An 84-year-old man was admitted with type III combined duodenal and biliary obstruction secondary to metastatic bladder cancer. A biliary stent was placed using a percutaneous approach, and a duodenal stent was placed endoscopically. A large amount of subphrenic free air was detected after the procedures. Laboratory tests indicated intestinal perforation; however, peritoneal signs were absent. The patient was treated conservatively using an indwelling Levin tube. Seven days later, the massive amount of subphrenic free air disappeared. Follow-up tubography revealed unrestricted bile flow into the small intestine, and the PTBD tube was removed. Prolonged endoscopic procedures in patients with a PTBD tract communicating with the gastrointestinal tract can precipitate pneumoperitoneum. Clinicians should be careful to avoid misdiagnosing this condition as intestinal perforation.


We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sending educational video clips via smartphone mobile messenger (SMM) on enhancing bowel preparation before colonoscopy.


Balloon tamponade using Sengstaken-Blakemore (SB) tube is employed as a bridging therapy in cases in which endoscopic therapy fails to control esophageal variceal bleeding. Although SB tube insertion can lead to successful hemostasis, it is accompanied by numerous complications, with SB tube transection being one of the rarest complications. A 53-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma presented with massive esophageal variceal bleeding. Therapeutic endoscopic variceal ligation failed, and SB tube was inserted. The SB tube was unexpectedly disconnected because of the patient’s irritability due to hepatic encephalopathy. The esophageal and gastric balloon of the SB tube remained inflated in the stomach. Whereas the use of other endoscopic instruments was ineffective, endoscopic removal was successfully accomplished using endoscopic scissors. In conclusion, we detected SB tube transection in a patient with hepatic encephalopathy and removed remnants of the inflated tube using endoscopic scissors.


Although colonoscopy was originally a diagnostic imaging procedure, it has now expanded to include an increasing range of therapeutic interventions. These procedures require precise maneuvers of instruments, execution of force, efficient transmission of force from the operator to the point of application, and sufficient dexterity in the mobilization of endoscopic surgical instruments. The conventional endoscope is not designed to support technically demanding endoscopic procedures. In case of colonoscopy, the tortuous anatomy of the colon makes inserting, moving, and orientating the endoscope difficult. Exerting excessive pressure can cause looping of the endoscope, pain to the patient, and even perforation of the colon. To mitigate the technical constraints, numerous technically enhanced systems have been developed to enable better control of instruments and precise delivery of force in the execution of surgical tasks such as apposing, grasping, traction, counter-traction, and cutting of tissues. Among the recent developments are highly dexterous robotic master and slave systems, computer-assisted or robotically enhanced conventional endoscopes, and autonomously driven locomotion devices that can effortlessly traverse the colon. Developments in endoscopic instrumentations have overcome technical barriers and opened new horizons for further advancements in therapeutic interventions. This review describes examples of some of these systems in the context of their applications to advanced therapeutic colonoscopy.


Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is considered a chronic condition characterized by mucosal or transmural inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Endoscopic diagnosis and surveillance in patients with IBD have become crucial. In addition, endoscopy is a useful modality in estimation and evaluation of the disease, treatment results, and efficacy of treatment delivery and surveillance. In relation to these aspects, endoscopic disease activity has been commonly estimated in clinical practices and trials. At present, many endoscopic indices of ulcerative colitis have been introduced, including the Truelove and Witts Endoscopy Index, Baron Index, Powell-Tuck Index, Sutherland Index, Mayo Clinic Endoscopic Sub-Score, Rachmilewitz Index, Modified Baron Index, Endoscopic Activity Index, Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity, Ulcerative Colitis Colonoscopic Index of Severity, and Modified Mayo Endoscopic Score. Endoscopic indices have been also suggested for Crohn’s disease, such as the Crohn’s Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity, Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn’s Disease, and Rutgeerts Postoperative Endoscopic Index. However, most endoscopic indices have not been validated owing to the complexity of their parameters and inter-observer variations. Therefore, a chronological approach for understanding the various endoscopic indices relating to IBD is needed to improve the management.