Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinical endoscopy


Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT.

Concepts: Cancer, Gut flora, Nutrition, Infection, Obesity, Constipation, Clostridium difficile, Chronic fatigue syndrome


We report our experience with a case of stomach perforation after accidental ingestion of liquid nitrogen. A 13-year-old boy ate a snack at an amusement park and began to complain of sudden onset of severe abdominal pain with shortness of breath. It was determined that the snack he had ingested had been cooled with liquid nitrogen. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and a chest X-ray showed a large volume of pneumoperitoneum. During surgery, a 4-cm perforation of the angularis incisura of the stomach was identified. Primary repair and omentopexy was performed. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Ingestion, Digestive system, Mouth, Radiography, Abdominal pain, Stomach, Abdomen


With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome.

Concepts: Stroke, Neurology, Feeding tube, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Motor neuron, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Gastrostomy, Enteral feeding


The use of moderate to deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has increased in Europe considerably. Because this level of sedation is a risky medical procedure, a number of international guidelines have been developed. This survey aims to review if, and if so which, quality aspects have been included in new sedation practices when compared to traditional uncontrolled sedation practices.

Concepts: Procedural sedation, Sedation, Endoscopy


Mucosal cutting biopsy (MCB) is useful for the histopathological diagnosis of gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs). However, there is little information on cases in which MCB did not establish a diagnosis. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the characteristics of cases in which MCB was unsuccessful.


Portoenteric fistula is a rare cause of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Most cases can be treated with radiointervention or surgery, but portoenteric fistula is associated with a high mortality. We reported a case of intermittent massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a 33-year-old man with cholangiocarcinoma who underwent surgical resection followed by chemoradiation. A portoduodenal fistula due to chronic duodenal ulceration was identified. The bleeding was successfully controlled by endoscopic ultrasound-guided coil placement through the duodenal bulb using the anchoring technique. Follow-up endoscopy and computed tomography scan showed multiple coil placements between a part of the portal vein and the duodenal bulb without any evidence of portal vein thrombosis. There were no complications, and bleeding did not recur during the 8-month follow-up period.


Abdominal pain is a common but benign symptom after colonoscopy. We report a case of acute pancreatitis that occurred just after an elective screening colonoscopy; this is a rare event with very few reported cases. A healthy, asymptomatic male underwent screening colonoscopy at our center and developed abdominal pain and emesis after the procedure. An abdominal X-ray ruled out perforation but laboratory tests revealed elevated levels of amylase and lipase. The patient had no etiological risk factors for pancreatitis. The presumed mechanism of pancreatitis in this case is mechanical and pressure trauma from excessive insufflation, external abdominal pressure, and repeated withdrawal of the colonoscope due to tight angulation of the splenic flexure, a structure that is in close proximity to the pancreatic tail. Acute pancreatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with abdominal pain after colonoscopy once more common etiologies have been excluded.


Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration is very effective for providing specimens for cytological evaluation. However, the ability to provide sufficient tissue for histological evaluation has been challenging due to the technical limitations of dedicated core biopsy needles. Recently, a modified EUS needle has been introduced to obtain tissue core samples for histological analysis. We aimed to determine (1) its ability to obtain specimens for histological assessment and (2) the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) using this needle.


A 49-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for further treatment due to the suspicion of a submucosal tumor in a routine screening colonoscopy. On colonoscopy, a 1-cm sized subepithelial mass with normal overlying mucosa in the hepatic flexure was found. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) showed a homogenous hypoechoic lesion arising from the second and third layer. We were unable to make a final diagnosis because the lesion showed a small tumor with atypical macroscopic morphology including EUS findings. Therefore, endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the diagnostic treatment of the tumor. Submucosal dissection was performed just above the muscle layer, and the tumor was removed completely and reliably without any acute complications such as perforation. Based on histopathological findings, we diagnosed a benign, calcifying fibrous tumor (CFT). The present case is the first report of successful endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of colonic CFT mimicking a submucosal tumor.


Prediction of histology by endoscopic examination is important in the clinical management of non-ampullary duodenal epithelial tumors (NADETs), including adenoma and adenocarcinoma. The use of a simple scoring system based on the findings of white-light endoscopy or magnified endoscopy with narrow-band imaging is useful to differentiate between Vienna category 3 (C3) and C4/5 lesions. Less invasive endoscopic resection procedures, such as cold snare polypectomy, are quick to perform and convenient for small (<10 mm) C3 lesions. Neoplasms with higher grade histology, such as C4/5 lesions, should be treated by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), or surgery. Although EMR often requires piecemeal resection, the complication rate is acceptable. Excellent complete resection rates could be achieved by ESD; however, it remains a challenging method considering the high risk of complications. Shielding or closure of the ulcer after ESD is effective at decreasing the risk of delayed bleeding and perforation. Laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery is an ideal treatment with a high rate of en bloc resection and a low rate of complications, although it is limited to high-volume centers. Patients with NADETs could benefit from a multidisciplinary approach to stratify the optimal treatment based on endoscopic diagnoses.