Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinical endoscopy


We report our experience with a case of stomach perforation after accidental ingestion of liquid nitrogen. A 13-year-old boy ate a snack at an amusement park and began to complain of sudden onset of severe abdominal pain with shortness of breath. It was determined that the snack he had ingested had been cooled with liquid nitrogen. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and a chest X-ray showed a large volume of pneumoperitoneum. During surgery, a 4-cm perforation of the angularis incisura of the stomach was identified. Primary repair and omentopexy was performed. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Ingestion, Digestive system, Mouth, Radiography, Abdominal pain, Stomach, Abdomen


Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT.

Concepts: Cancer, Gut flora, Nutrition, Infection, Obesity, Constipation, Clostridium difficile, Chronic fatigue syndrome


With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome.

Concepts: Stroke, Neurology, Feeding tube, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Motor neuron, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Gastrostomy, Enteral feeding


The use of moderate to deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has increased in Europe considerably. Because this level of sedation is a risky medical procedure, a number of international guidelines have been developed. This survey aims to review if, and if so which, quality aspects have been included in new sedation practices when compared to traditional uncontrolled sedation practices.

Concepts: Procedural sedation, Sedation, Endoscopy


Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) of the intradiverticular papilla with its invisible orifice remains challenging. Several techniques have been introduced to evert the papillary opening to facilitate cannulation. A 79-year-old woman with bile duct stones underwent ERCP, which revealed that the papilla was located inside a large diverticulum and tended to rotate inward with a trial of papillary cannulation. Submucosal papillary injection of 3 cc of normal saline was performed at 3 and 9 o'clock. Eversion and fixation of a papilla in the diverticulum with this technique allowed selective cannulation of the biliary tree. Stones were retrieved after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation without complications. She had an uneventful post-procedural course. Our findings suggest that submucosal saline injection technique is safe and effective for selective cannulation and can be recommended when cannulation is very difficult because of an intradiverticular papilla.


The histologic analysis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) is a common method to detect the mitotic activity and to subsequently determine the risk of GISTs for malignancy. The potential false negative error due to inadequate yield of specimens and actual determination of malignancy risk requires analysis of the whole tumor. We aimed to assess the role of contrast enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS) in the management of GISTs. Two authors individually did review of English literatures to identify nine peer-reviewed original articles using keywords- contrast endoscopic ultrasound, GIST and submucosal tumor. Studies were heterogeneous in their aims looking either at differentiating submucosal lesions from GISTs, estimating malignant potential of GISTs with histologic correlation or studying the role of angiogenesis in malignant risk stratification. CE-EUS had moderate to high efficacy in differentiating GISTs from alternative submucosal tumors. CE-EUS had a higher sensitivity than EUS-guided fine needle aspiration, contrast computed tomography and Doppler EUS for detection of neo-vascularity within the GISTs. However, the evidence of abnormal angiogenesis within GIST as a prognostic factor needs further validation. CE-EUS is a non-invasive modality, which can help differentiate GISTs and provide valuable assessment of their perfusion patterns to allow better prediction of their malignant potential but more experience is needed.


A growing number of studies have explored endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided vascular catheterization. Potential clinical applications of EUS-guided portal venous access include angiography, measurement of the portosystemic pressure gradient, EUS-guided transhepatic intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation and portal vein sampling for the evaluation in gastrointestinal cancer. The following article reviews the different devices and techniques employed in these applications.


Gastroscopy and colonoscopy are widely used for the early diagnosis of stomach and colorectal cancer. The present revision integrates recent data regarding previous quality indicators and novel indicators suggested for gastroscopy and colonoscopy procedures for the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea. The new indicators, developed by the Quality Improvement Committee of the Korean Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vary in the level of supporting evidence, and most are based solely on expert opinion. Updated indicators validated by clinical research were prioritized, but were chosen by expert consensus when such studies were absent. The resultant quality indicators were graded according to the levels of consensus and recommendations. The updated indicators will provide a relevant guideline for high-quality endoscopy. The future direction of quality indicator development should include relevant outcome measures and an evidence-based approach to support proposed performance targets.


To report the long-term survival and tumor recurrence outcomes in patients with superficial esophageal cancer (SEC) after complete non-curative endoscopic resection (ER).


Obesity in the United States is a medical crisis with many people attempting to lose weight with caloric restriction. Some patients choose minimally invasive weight loss solutions, such as intragastric balloon systems. These balloon systems were approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015-2016 and have been considered safe, with minimal side effects. We report a patient with a two-day history of melena, abdominal pain, hypotension, and syncope which developed five months after placement of an intragastric balloon. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy with balloon removal revealed a small 8-mm gastric ulcer in the incisura. This gastric ulcer probably developed secondary to mechanical compression of the stomach mucosa by the gastric balloon which contained 900 mL of saline. The FDA is now investigating five deaths since 2016 associated with these second-generation balloons. Clinicians should be aware of these complications when evaluating patients with gastrointestinal complications, such as bleeding.