SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinical endoscopy

3

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT.

Concepts: Cancer, Gut flora, Nutrition, Infection, Obesity, Constipation, Clostridium difficile, Chronic fatigue syndrome

2

With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome.

Concepts: Stroke, Neurology, Feeding tube, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Motor neuron, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Gastrostomy, Enteral feeding

2

The use of moderate to deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has increased in Europe considerably. Because this level of sedation is a risky medical procedure, a number of international guidelines have been developed. This survey aims to review if, and if so which, quality aspects have been included in new sedation practices when compared to traditional uncontrolled sedation practices.

Concepts: Procedural sedation, Sedation, Endoscopy

0

Endoscopic resection is the first-line treatment for rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) measuring <1 cm and those between 1 and 2 cm in size. However, conventional endoscopic resection cannot achieve complete resection in all cases. We aimed to analyze clinical outcomes of precut endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR-P) used for the management of rectal NET.

Concepts: Neuroendocrine tumor

0

Endoscopy plays a crucial role in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in terms of diagnosis, monitoring of mucosal status, and surveillance of colitis-associated neoplasia. Mucosal healing evaluated by endoscopy has been recognized as the target of treatment in the era of powerful biologics therapy. The optimal modality for identifying dysplasia in IBD has yet to be well defined. Increasing progress has recently been made in endoscopic technologies to more accurately assess mucosal inflammation and more effectively detect dysplasia. Here we review the data of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques such as chromoendoscopy, virtual chromoendoscopy, endocytoscopy, and confocal laser endomicroscopy in the management of IBD.

Concepts: Inflammation, Colonoscopy, Inflammatory bowel disease

0

Long-standing intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induces dysplastic change in the intestinal mucosa and increases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer. The evolving endoscopic techniques and technologies, including dye spraying methods and high-definition images, have been replacing random biopsies and have been revealed as more practical and efficient for detection of dysplasia in IBD patients. In addition, they have potential usefulness in detailed characterization of lesions and in the assessment of endoscopic resectability. Most dysplastic lesions without an unclear margin, definite ulceration, non-lifting sign, and high index of malignant change with suspicion for lymph node or distant metastases can be removed endoscopically. However, endoscopic resection of dysplasia in chronic IBD patients is usually difficult because it is often complicated by submucosal fibrosis. In patients with dysplasias that demonstrate submucosa fibrosis or a large size (≥20 mm), endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) or ESD with snaring (simplified or hybrid ESD) is an alternative option and may avoid a colectomy. However, a standardized endoscopic therapeutic approach for dysplasia in IBD has not been established yet, and dedicated specialized endoscopists with interest in IBD are needed to fully investigate recent emerging techniques and technologies.

Concepts: Inflammation, Cancer, Oncology, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colonoscopy, Inflammatory bowel disease, Dysplasia

0

Inflammatory bowel diseases are idiopathic inflammatory diseases of two main types, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Crohn’s disease can affect the entire gastrointestinal tract, and the distal ileum is involved in up to 70% of patients. Moreover, Crohn’s disease in one-quarter to one-third of patients involves isolation of the small bowel. Due to the nonspecific symptoms and anatomical location of the disease, small bowel Crohn’s disease is a phenotype that is particularly difficult to manage. Since the introduction of capsule endoscopy in 2000 and balloon-assisted enteroscopy in the 21st century, it is now possible to directly inspect for small bowel Crohn’s disease. However, the new modalities still have limitations, such as capsule retention and invasiveness of balloon-assisted enteroscopy. The diagnostic yields of both capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy are high for patients with suspected small bowel Crohn’s disease. Therefore, earlier use of capsule endoscopy or balloon-assisted enteroscopy can help with the diagnosis and earlier treatment of these patients to avert possible disastrous outcomes.

Concepts: Biopsy, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Inflammatory bowel disease, Bowel obstruction

0

Management of intestinal strictures associated with Crohn’s disease (CD) is clinically challenging despite advanced medical therapy directed toward mucosal healing to positively influence the natural course of CD-associated complications. Although medical therapy is available for inflammatory strictures, therapy of fibrostenotic strictures is the domain of surgery and endoscopy. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) has been recognized as a well-established first-line procedure in terms of safety and efficacy. Although surgery is a valuable treatment modality for the management of CD-related strictures, EBD can help prevent multiple surgical interventions, which might in the long-term lead to a risk of short bowel syndrome. In this review we discuss requirements, techniques, safety, short- and long-term outcomes, as well as combinations of this procedure with surgical and medical treatment in CD-associated intestinal strictures.

Concepts: Medicine, Therapy, Ulcerative colitis, Colonoscopy, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Bowel obstruction, Malabsorption

0

Patients may feel embarrassed during colonoscopy. Our study aimed to assess changes in patient preference, over the past decade, for the sex of their colonoscopist.

Concepts: Patient, Change

0

Although both radial- and convex-arrayed endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) scopes are widely used for observational EUS examinations, there have been few comparative studies on their power of visualization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of these EUS scopes for observation of the pancreatobiliary junction.

Concepts: Observation, Cultural studies