SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinical endoscopy

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Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the infusion of liquid filtrate feces from a healthy donor into the gut of a recipient to cure a specific disease. A fecal suspension can be administered by nasogastric or nasoduodenal tube, colonoscope, enema, or capsule. The high success rate and safety in the short term reported for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection has elevated FMT as an emerging treatment for a wide range of disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, myoclonus dystopia, multiple sclerosis, obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and autism. There are many unanswered questions regarding FMT, including donor selection and screening, standardized protocols, long-term safety, and regulatory issues. This article reviews the efficacy and safety of FMT used in treating a variety of diseases, methodology, criteria for donor selection and screening, and various concerns regarding FMT.

Concepts: Nutrition, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Obesity, Constipation, Cancer, Infection, Gut flora, Clostridium difficile

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With the notable exceptions of dementia, stroke, and motor neuron disease, relatively little is known about the safety and utility of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube insertion in patients with neurodegenerative disease. We aimed to determine the safety and utility of PEG feeding in the context of neurodegenerative disease and to complete a literature review in order to identify whether particular factors need to be considered to improve safety and outcome.

Concepts: Neurology, Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Gastrostomy, Motor neuron, Enteral feeding, Feeding tube, Stroke, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

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The use of moderate to deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures has increased in Europe considerably. Because this level of sedation is a risky medical procedure, a number of international guidelines have been developed. This survey aims to review if, and if so which, quality aspects have been included in new sedation practices when compared to traditional uncontrolled sedation practices.

Concepts: Procedural sedation, Endoscopy, Sedation

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Gastroparesis (GP) is a syndrome characterized by delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction of the stomach or proximal small bowel. Currently available dietary and medical therapies are limited and have suboptimal efficacy. Pylorus-directed therapies have showed promising results. Gastric peroral endoscopic myotomy (G-POEM) has been reported for the treatment of GP refractory to standard therapy with promising results. This article reviews the current applications and results of G-POEM for the treatment of refractory GP.

Concepts: Digestive system, Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals, Digestion, Bowel obstruction, Therapy, Small intestine, Medicine, Stomach

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Colonoscopy is currently regarded as the gold standard and preferred method of screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the benefit of colonoscopy screening may be blunted by low participation rates in population-based screening programs. Harmful effects of population-based colonoscopy screening may include complications induced by colonoscopy itself and by sedation, psychosocial distress, potential over-diagnosis, and socioeconomic burden. In addition, harmful effects of colonoscopy may increase with age and comorbidities. As the risk of adverse events in population-based colonoscopy screening may offset the benefit, the adverse events should be managed and monitored. To adopt population-based colonoscopy screening, consensus on the risks and benefits should be developed, focusing on potential harm, patient preference, socioeconomic considerations, and quality improvement of colonoscopy, as well as efficacy for CRC prevention. As suboptimal colonoscopy quality is a major pitfall of population-based screening, adequate training and regulation of screening colonoscopists should be the first step in minimizing variations in quality. Gastroenterologists should promote quality improvement, auditing, and training for colonoscopy in a population-based screening program.

Concepts: The Key, Risk, Preference, Colorectal polyp, Sigmoidoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Ulcerative colitis, Cancer

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Gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors (SETs) are generally found during endoscopy and their incidence has gradually increased. Although the indications for the endoscopic treatment of patients with SETs remain to be established, the feasibility and safety of endoscopic dissection, including the advantages of this method compared with surgical treatment, have been validated in many studies. The development of endoscopic techniques, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection, endoscopic enucleation, endoscopic excavation, endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection, submucosal tunnel endoscopic resection, and endoscopic full-thickness resection has enabled the removal of SETs while reducing the occurrence of complications. Here, we discuss the endoscopic treatment of patients with SETs, outcomes for endoscopic treatment, and procedure-related complications. We also consider the advantages and disadvantages of the various endoscopic techniques.

Concepts: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy

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The full-thickness resection device (FTRD) is a novel endoscopic device approved for the resection of colorectal lesions. This case-series describes the device and its use in high-risk patients with colorectal lesions and provides an overview of the potential indications in recently published data. Between December 2014 and September 2015, 3 patients underwent endoscopic full thickness resection using the FTRD for colorectal lesions: 1 case for a T1 adenocarcinoma in the region of a surgical anastomosis after recto-sigmoidectomy, 1 case for a non-lifting colonic adenoma with low-grade dysplasia in an 89-year old patient and 1 for a recurrent adenoma with high-grade dysplasia in a young patient with ulcerative rectocolitis who was under immunosuppression after renal transplantation. Both technical and clinical success rates were achieved in all cases. The size of removed lesions ranged from 9 to 30 mm. Overall, the most frequent indication in the literature has been for lifting or non-lifting adenoma, submucosal tumors, neuroendocrin tumors, incomplete endoscopic resection (R1) or T1 carcinoma. Colorectal FTRD is a feasible technique for the treatment of colorectal lesions and represents a minimally invasive alternative for either surgical or conventional endoscopic resection strategies.

Concepts: Anastomosis, Sigmoidoscopy, Adenoma, Cancer, Adenocarcinoma, Anatomical pathology, Dysplasia, Surgery

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. It is amenable to screening as it occurs in premalignant, latent, early, and curable stages. PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and national and international CRC screening guidelines were searched for CRC screening methods, populations, and timing. CRC screening can use direct or indirect tests, delivered opportunistically or via organized programs. Most CRCs are diagnosed after 60 years of age; most screening programs apply to individuals 50-75 years of age. Screening may reduce disease-specific mortality by detecting CRC in earlier stages, and CRC incidence by detecting premalignant polyps, which can subsequently be removed. In randomized controlled trials (RCTs) guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBt) was found to reduce CRC mortality by 13%-33%. Fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) has no RCT data comparing it to no screening, but is superior to gFOBt. Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) trials demonstrated an 18% reduction in CRC incidence and a 28% reduction in CRC mortality. Currently, RCT evidence for colonoscopy screening is scarce. Although not yet corroborated by RCTs, it is likely that colonoscopy is the best screening modality for an individual. From a population perspective, organized programs are superior to opportunistic screening. However, no nation can offer organized population-wide colonoscopy screening. Thus, organized programs using cheaper modalities, such as FS/FIT, can be tailored to budget and capacity.

Concepts: Colorectal polyp, Evidence-based medicine, Epidemiology, Colonoscopy, Sigmoidoscopy, Colorectal cancer, Randomized controlled trial, Fecal occult blood

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Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.

Concepts: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, Esophageal cancer, Esophagus, Botulinum toxin, Muscle, Achalasia, Surgery, Heller myotomy

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The concept of using natural orifices to reduce the complications of surgery, Natural Orifices Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, has also been applied to therapeutic endoscopy. Endoscopic submucosal surgery (ESS) provides more treatment options for various gastrointestinal diseases than traditional therapeutic endoscopy by using the submucosal layer as a working space. ESS has been performed in various fields ranging from transluminal peritoneoscopy to peroral endoscopic myotomy. With further advances in technology, ESS will be increasingly useful for diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.

Concepts: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopy