SciCombinator

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Journal: Clinical drug investigation

163

Patients from a previous study of neuropathic pain (NP) in the Spanish primary care setting still had symptoms despite treatment. Subsequently, patients were treated as prescribed by their physician and followed up for 3 months. Since pregabalin has been shown to be effective in NP, including refractory cases, the objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of pregabalin therapy in patients with NP refractory to previous treatments.

Concepts: Effectiveness, Neuropathic pain

147

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a long-acting d-amphetamine prodrug used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents and adults. LDX is hydrolysed in the blood to yield d-amphetamine, and the pharmacokinetic profile of d-amphetamine following oral administration of LDX has a lower maximum plasma concentration (C max), extended time to C max (T max) and lower inter- and intra-individual variability in exposure compared with the pharmacokinetic profile of an equivalent dose of immediate-release (IR) d-amphetamine. The therapeutic action of LDX extends to at least 13 h post-dose in children and 14 h post-dose in adults, longer than that reported for any other long-acting formulation. Drug-liking scores for LDX are lower than for an equivalent dose of IR d-amphetamine, which may result from the reduced euphorigenic potential associated with its pharmacokinetic profile. These pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of LDX may be beneficial in the management of symptoms in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Methylphenidate, Amphetamine, Lisdexamfetamine, Prodrug, Dextroamphetamine, Amphetamines

28

BACKGROUND: Intravenous bisphosphonates are widely used for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. They are associated with transient influenza-like symptoms, predominantly after the first zoledronic acid (up to 32 %) or ibandronate (up to 5 %) administration. The experience in clinical practice suggests that the incidence of post-dose symptoms is higher than has been reported in clinical trials. We assessed the safety of annual infusions of zoledronic acid and 3-monthly injections of ibandronate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study we analysed safety data from 272 postmenopausal women treated with zoledronic acid (n = 127; mean age 68.6 ± 9.4 years) or intravenous (IV) ibandronate (n = 145; mean age 69.1 ± 9.0 years). Safety data (including occurrence of acute-phase reactions and osteonecrosis of the jaw) were gathered in phone call interviews by using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The number of patients with adverse events was significantly higher in zoledronic acid as compared to ibandronate-treated patients, primarily because of a larger number of post-dose symptoms after bisphosphonate administrations (54.3 % vs. 33.1 %, p < 0.001). Except for occurrence of fever (more common after zoledronic acid infusion), other influenza-like symptoms (myalgia, arthralgia, headache) appeared in a similar proportion of patients after IV treatment (within 24-36 h). Symptoms lasted for >3 days in approximately 50 % of patients. The incidence of symptoms decreased after subsequent infusions. The rate of influenza-like symptoms was more frequent after zoledronic acid than after IV ibandronate in bisphosphonate-naïve patients but comparable in patients pretreated with oral bisphosphonates. There were no spontaneous reports of osteonecrosis of the jaw, arrhythmia or delayed fracture healing. CONCLUSION: Although IV bisphosphonates are generally safe, the occurrence of transient influenza-like symptoms after IV bisphosphonates seems to be more frequent in clinical practice than has been reported in clinical trials.

Concepts: Bisphosphonate, Osteoporosis, Bisphosphonates, Multiple myeloma, Clinical trial, Bone fracture, Menopause, Adverse event

27

Two new oral anticoagulants, rivaroxaban and dabigatran, with no need for anticoagulation monitoring, are available for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to compare their anticoagulant effects and safety when used during the AF ablation periprocedural period.

Concepts: Atrial fibrillation, Warfarin, Anticoagulant, Heparin, Dabigatran, Anticoagulants

27

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bilastine (Bilaxten™) is a novel non-sedating H1 receptor antagonist (antihistamine) developed in the dosage form of oral tablets and indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (seasonal and perennial) and urticaria. Several clinical trials have been performed in order to determine the efficacy and safety of bilastine. The aim of this trial was to study the absolute oral bioavailability of bilastine in humans. METHODS: Twelve male and female adults were recruited into a single centre for a randomized, single-dose, open-label, controlled two-arm crossover study with a minimum 14-day washout period between the two single doses. Two single doses of bilastine were administered: a 20-mg oral tablet and a 10-mg intravenous formulation. Blood and urine samples were collected between 0 and 72 h post each administration. The clinical trial was carried out under quality assurance and quality control systems with standard operating procedures to ensure that the study was conducted and data generated in compliance with the protocol, Good Clinical Practice standards, International Conference on Harmonisation and other applicable regulations. RESULTS: Oral bioavailability of bilastine was 60.67 % with a 90 % parametric confidence interval of 53.79-67.56. The maximum bilastine concentration was measured 1.31 h after oral administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those observed in previous studies. Tolerance to treatment was good, with no adverse events related to study medication. CONCLUSION: The absorption of bilastine after oral administration to healthy subjects was rapid. The absolute oral bioavailability was moderate.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Crossover study, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Clinical trial protocol, Good clinical practice, Clinical site

26

The combination of direct-acting antiviral agents in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has demonstrated clinical benefit; however, evaluation of potential drug-drug interactions is required prior to therapy.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, Medicine, Virus, Hepatitis, Antiviral drug, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C virus

25

Concerns that antiepileptic brand-to-generic interchange results in disruption of seizure control are widespread. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the brand-to-generic levetiracetam switch in patients with focal or generalized epilepsy.

Concepts: Epilepsy, Anticonvulsant, Seizure, Status epilepticus, Diazepam, Levetiracetam, Myoclonus, Generic antecedent

23

Although the use of oral risperidone in children and adolescents has been well studied, there is little information on the intramuscular use of long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR). The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness and adverse effects of LAIR in children and adolescents with conduct disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Antipsychotic, Schizophrenia, Psychosis, Bipolar disorder, Suicide, Schizoaffective disorder

21

Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects 2-3% of the worldwide population. The interleukin-17 cytokine family has been proven to play a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Brodalumab is a novel biologic agent that targets interleukin-17 molecules and their receptors. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of brodalumab as a therapeutic agent for moderate-to-severe psoriasis in a meta-analysis framework.

Concepts: Medicine, Psoriasis

12

Congestion is the main cause of morbidity in patients with heart failure. Treatment of fluid overload is often challenging in everyday clinical practice.

Concepts: Medicine, Hypertension, Cardiology, Heart failure, Diuretic