SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Clinical colorectal cancer

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Metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes continue to improve, but they vary significantly by race and ethnicity. We hypothesize that these disparities arise from unequal access to care.

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Patients with deficient microsatellite mismatch repair (dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC) may respond to immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI), whereas patients with microsatellite-stable (MSS) CRC have not demonstrated response. However, a proportion of MSS tumors display histomorphologic features characteristic of dMMR tumors consistent with an increased antigenicity. Therefore, a subset of patients with CRC not currently receiving ICI treatment may derive benefit from ICI therapy. We review tumors in which the histologic features suggestive of dMMR were in disagreement with the DNA mismatch repair proteins obtained by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Possible causes of such disagreement are discussed.

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The role of neoadjuvant short-course radiation therapy (SCRT) in treating rectal adenocarcinoma is a topic of ongoing debate. Growing interest in total neoadjuvant therapy has spurred discussion on the optimal sequence of preoperative SCRT and chemotherapy.

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Despite excellent prognosis for early stage disease, 5-year survival rates in metastatic disease remain low. A small subset of CRC is defined by a deficiency in mismatch repair (dMMR) resulting in high levels of microsatellite instability and are responsive to immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 axis and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 have been explored and show robust clinical outcomes with prolonged progression-free survivals in nonrandomized single-arm clinical trials. On the basis of these data, single-agent therapy with pembrolizumab and nivolumab and combination therapy with nivolumab/ipilimumab have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for metastatic CRC that has progressed after treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. Ongoing clinical trials are exploring the use of these agents in earlier lines of therapy such as first-line metastatic therapy and adjuvant therapy for stage III CRC. However, resistance to ICIs does occur in a subset of patients and ongoing clinical trials are exploring novel approaches in these PD-1-refractory patients. The aim of this review is to outline the development and decision-making of ICIs in the treatment of dMMR CRC and to discuss ongoing clinical trials in this therapeutic space.

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The prognosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is poor. Cetuximab and panitumumab, 2 anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), improve the overall survival of patients with RAS wild-type mCRC. However, not all patients with RAS wild-type mCRC will respond to anti-EGFR mAbs. Several retrospective trials suggest that human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) amplification could be a predictive biomarker of resistance to anti-EGFR mAbs in patients with metastatic RAS and RAF wild-type mCRC. Dual HER2 inhibition with trastuzumab plus lapatinib or pertuzumab has shown promising preliminary anti-tumoral efficacy in RAS wild-type mCRC. Although these findings need to be confirmed in randomized trials, the data strongly support that HER2 is an actionable gene in CRC and provide the scientific rationale to test HER2 status on a routine basis in this disease. In this review, we discuss the predictive value of HER2 activation in CRC as well as its potential role as a treatment target.

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This study explored the impact of chemotherapy completion on irinotecan efficacy in preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.

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Although elderly patients are the first concerned by colorectal cancer (CRC), they are underrepresented in clinical trials. The real-world CASSIOPEE study was thus conducted in elderly patients treated for metastatic CRC (mCRC).

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In the absence of head-to-head comparison studies, the present network meta-analysis evaluated and compared the efficacy of 4 therapeutic alternatives for refractory colorectal cancer.

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Using a large national registry, we investigated patterns of care and overall survival (OS) for metastatic rectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT), or with a multimodal approach.

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Although no data have been reported beyond second-line therapy, aflibercept is approved in this setting in many countries. We conducted a multicenter study to analyze the efficacy and safety of a aflibercept-chemotherapy regimen beyond second-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.