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Journal: Clinical cardiology


The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score has been extensively validated to predict risk during hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Recently, serum calcium has been suggested as an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; however, the relationship between the 2 has not been evaluated.

Concepts: Emergency department, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Atherosclerosis, Hospital, Calcium metabolism, Myocardial infarction, Acute coronary syndrome


In acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) is high. Early detection of patients at risk for AKI is important. We tested urinary [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7], a new US Food and Drug Administration-cleared test to assess AKI risk, in a cohort of hospitalized ADHF patients.

Concepts: Hospital, Andrew Martin, Kidney, Acute kidney injury, Cardiovascular diseases, Heart failure, Acute decompensated heart failure


Residual cardiovascular risk persists despite statins, yet outcome studies of lipid-targeted therapies beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have not demonstrated added benefit. Triglyceride elevation is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. High-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces triglyceride-rich lipoproteins without raising LDL-C. Omega-3s have postulated pleiotropic cardioprotective benefits beyond triglyceride-lowering. To date, no large, multinational, randomized clinical trial has proved that lowering triglycerides on top of statin therapy improves cardiovascular outcomes. The Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT; NCT01492361) is a phase 3b randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of icosapent ethyl, a highly purified ethyl ester of EPA, vs placebo. The main objective is to evaluate whether treatment with icosapent ethyl reduces ischemic events in statin-treated patients with high triglycerides at elevated cardiovascular risk. REDUCE-IT enrolled men or women age ≥45 years with established cardiovascular disease or age ≥50 years with diabetes mellitus and 1 additional risk factor. Randomization required fasting triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL and <500 mg/dL and LDL-C >40 mg/dL and ≤100 mg/dL with stable statin (± ezetimibe) ≥4 weeks prior to qualifying measurements. The primary endpoint is a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or unstable angina. The key secondary endpoint is the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Several secondary, tertiary, and exploratory endpoints will be assessed. Approximately 8000 patients have been randomized at approximately 470 centers worldwide. Follow-up will continue in this event-driven trial until approximately 1612 adjudicated primary-efficacy endpoint events have occurred.

Concepts: Atheroma, Stroke, Cholesterol, Cardiovascular disease, Statin, Low-density lipoprotein, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis


The benefit of aspirin among patients with stable atherosclerosis without a prior ischemic event is not well defined.

Concepts: Benefit of clergy, Myocardial infarction, Stroke, Cardiovascular disease, Blood vessel


Although heart failure (HF) is a common cause of hospital admissions, few data describe temporal trends in HF hospitalization. We present data on number of HF admissions, length of stay (LOS), and inpatient mortality in the United States, 1996-2009.

Concepts: Chinese language, Hospital, English language, U.S. state, Poverty in the United States, Heart failure, United States, Cardiology


The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies likely represent the greatest advance in lipid management in 30 years. In 2015 the US Food and Drug Administration approved both alirocumab and evolocumab for high-risk patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease requiring additional lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Though many lipid specialists, cardiovascular disease prevention experts, endocrinologists, and others prescribed the drugs on label, they found their directives denied 80% to 90% of the time. The high frequency of denials prompted the American Society for Preventive Cardiology (ASPC), to gather multiple stakeholder organizations including the American College of Cardiology, National Lipid Association, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), and FH Foundation for 2 town hall meetings to identify access issues and implement viable solutions. This article reviews findings recognized and solutions suggested by experts during these discussions. The article is a product of the ASPC, along with each author writing as an individual and endorsed by the AACE.

Concepts: Atheroma, Cardiology, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Myocardial infarction, Cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein, Cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis


Antithrombotic management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing coronary stenting is complicated by the need for anticoagulant therapy for stroke prevention and dual antiplatelet therapy for prevention of stent thrombosis and coronary events. Triple antithrombotic therapy, typically comprising warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel, is associated with a high risk of bleeding. A modest-sized trial of oral anticoagulation with warfarin and clopidogrel without aspirin showed improvements in both bleeding and thrombotic events compared with triple therapy, but large trials are lacking. The RE-DUAL PCI trial (NCT 02164864) is a phase 3b, a strategy of prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. The main objective is to evaluate dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran etexilate (110 or 150 mg twice daily) and a P2Y12 inhibtor (either clopidogrel or ticagrelor) compared with triple antithrombotic therapy with warfarin, a P2Y12 inhibtor (either clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and low-dose aspirin (for 1 or 3 months, depending on stent type) in nonvalvular AF patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting. The primary endpoint is time to first International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major bleeding event or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event. Secondary endpoints are the composite of all cause death or thrombotic events (myocardial infarction, or stroke/systemic embolism) and unplanned revascularization; death or thrombotic events; individual outcome events; death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; and unplanned revascularization. A hierarchical procedure for multiple testing will be used. The plan is to randomize ∼ 2500 patients at approximately 550 centers worldwide to try to identify new treatment strategies for this patient population.

Concepts: Dabigatran, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Cardiology, Myocardial infarction, Warfarin, Atrial fibrillation, Anticoagulant, Stroke


The association between the development of heart failure (HF) and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is not well established.

Concepts: Paracetamol, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in women. Historically, medical research has focused on male patients, and subsequently, there has been decreased awareness of the burden of ASCVD in females until recent years. The biological differences between sexes and differences in societal expectations defined by gender roles contribute to gender differences in ASCVD risk factors. With these differing risk profiles, risk assessment, risk stratification, and primary preventive measures of ASCVD are different in women and men. In this review article, clinicians will understand the risk factors unique to women, such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and those that disproportionately affect them such as autoimmune disorders. With these conditions in mind, the approach to ASCVD risk assessment and stratification in women will be discussed. Furthermore, the literature behind the effects of primary preventive measures in women, including lifestyle modifications, aspirin, statins, and anticoagulation, will be reviewed. The aim of this review article was to ultimately improve ASCVD primary prevention by reducing gender disparities through education of physicians.

Concepts: Risk, Male, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Female, Myocardial infarction, Gender role, Gender


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in women. Although traditional risk factors increase later-life CVD, pregnancy-associated complications additionally influence future CVD risk in women. Recent guidelines for the prevention of CVD in women have added adverse pregnancy outcomes as major CVD risk factors. Studies have shown that women with a history of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm delivery, and delivery of a small-for-gestational-age infant have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and subsequent CVD. A history of multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes further increases this risk. It has been suggested that these pregnancy complications may unmask preexisting elevated CVD risk; however, whether the pathophysiologic changes underlying these conditions directly result in long-term cardiovascular damage is unclear. The purpose of this review was to highlight the associations between adverse pregnancy outcomes and future CVD, and to emphasize the importance of considering pregnancy history in assessing a woman’s CVD risk. Targeted efforts to initiate screening and risk-reduction strategies in women with prior history of pregnancy complications, particularly lifestyle modification, may help decrease the burden of CVD in women.

Concepts: Gestational diabetes, Infant, Underlying, Derivative, Woman, Pregnancy, Obstetrics, Childbirth