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Journal: Clinical and molecular hepatology

142

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease whose prevalence has reached global epidemic proportions. Although the disease is relatively benign in the early stages, when severe clinical forms, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma, occur, they result in worsening the long-term prognosis. A growing body of evidence indicates that NAFLD develops from a complex process in which many factors, including genetic susceptibility and environmental insults, are involved. In this review, we focused on the genetic component of NAFLD, with special emphasis on the role of genetics in the disease pathogenesis and natural history. Insights into the topic of the genetic susceptibility in lean individuals with NAFLD and the potential use of genetic tests in identifying individuals at risk are also discussed.

Concepts: Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Fatty liver, Steatosis

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sitagliptin with and without a synbiotic supplement in the treatment of patients with NAFLD.

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Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin is a standard treatment for patients infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of this treatment in Korean patients with chronic HCV genotype 2 infection.

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The paradigm for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has been changed due to the development of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The high sustained virologic response rate and ease of administration makes the DAAs approach ideal to contribute to the complete eradication of HCV. Currently, treatment options for individual patients vary depending on the genotype or subtype of HCV, presence or absence of liver cirrhosis, previous experience of antiviral treatment or resistance associated substitutions. Because of drug avalilability, cost-effectiveness, preference, compliance and greater possibility of desirable effects and presumed patient-important outcomes may vary between countries, treatment options for individual patients are different. The review focuses on the comparing the current treatment options for CHC in other continents with the 2017 Korea Association for the Study of the Liver guidelines.

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The most widely used method for diagnosing sarcopenia is the skeletal muscle index (SMI). Several studies have suggested that psoas muscle thickness per height (PMTH) is also effective for detecting sarcopenia and predicting prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal cutoff values of PMTH for detecting sarcopenia in cirrhotic patients.

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Correct renal function evaluation is based on estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and complementary renal damage biomarkers, such as neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL). The aim of this study was to evaluate eGFR and NGAL modifications and renal impairment during treatment with a direct acting antiviral (DAA) for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Concepts: Renal failure, Nephrology, Virus, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B

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The advent of novel, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens for hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has revolutionized its treatment by producing a sustained virologic response of more than 95% with few side effects and no comorbidities in the general population. Until recently, ideal DAA regimens have not been available to patients with severe renal impairment and end-stage renal disease because there are limited data on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of treatment in this unique population. In a hemodialysis context, identifying patients in need of treatment and preventing HCV transmission may also be a matter of concern. Recently published studies suggest that a combination of paritaprevir/ ritonavir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir, elbasvir/grazoprevir, or glecaprevir/pibrentasir successfully treats HCV infection in chronic kidney disease stage 4 or 5 patients with or without hemodialysis.

Concepts: Renal failure, Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Nephrology, Erythropoietin, Hepatitis C, Artificial kidney, Malaise

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Alcohol consumption has increased over the past 40 years in Korea concomitantly with the country’s rapid socioeconomic development. As a result, alcohol-related deaths and mortality continue to increase in Korea. This review will summarize the recent epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease in Korea.

Concepts: Alcohol, Demography, Cirrhosis, Alcoholism, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic beverage, Alcoholic liver disease

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicates in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), leading to the production of type I interferons (IFNs). It is well known that the gene expression profile of PBMC is similar to that of the liver. The present study explored the dynamic gene expression profile of PBMCs collected from HCV-infected patients undergoing direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy.

Concepts: Immune system, Gene, Bacteria, Virus, Interferon, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, PBMC

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With increasing clinical use, radiotherapy (RT) has been considered reliable and effective method for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment, depending on extent of disease and patient characteristics. RT for HCC can improve therapeutic outcomes through excellent local control, downstaging, conversion from unresectable to resectable status, and treatments of unresectable HCCs with vessel invasion or multiple intrahepatic metastases. In addition, further development of modern RT technologies, including image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy, has expanded the indication of RT. An essential feature of IGRT is that it allows image guidance therapy through in-room images obtained during radiation delivery. Compared with 3D-conformal RT, distinctions of IMRT are inverse treatment planning process and use of a large number of treatment fields or subfields, which provide high precision and exquisitely conformal dose distribution. These modern RT techniques allow more precise treatment by reducing inter- and intra-fractional errors resulting from daily changes and irradiated dose at surrounding normal tissues. More recently, particle therapy has been actively investigated to improve effectiveness of RT. This review discusses modern RT strategies for HCC, as well as optimal selection of RT in multimodal approach for HCC.

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Oncology, Radiation therapy, Medical physics, Radiation oncology, Image-guided radiation therapy, Cancer treatments