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Journal: Clinical and molecular hepatology

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease whose prevalence has reached global epidemic proportions. Although the disease is relatively benign in the early stages, when severe clinical forms, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma, occur, they result in worsening the long-term prognosis. A growing body of evidence indicates that NAFLD develops from a complex process in which many factors, including genetic susceptibility and environmental insults, are involved. In this review, we focused on the genetic component of NAFLD, with special emphasis on the role of genetics in the disease pathogenesis and natural history. Insights into the topic of the genetic susceptibility in lean individuals with NAFLD and the potential use of genetic tests in identifying individuals at risk are also discussed.

Concepts: Steatosis, Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, Fatty liver, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

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With improvements in the survival of liver transplantation (LT) recipients, the focus is shifting to patient quality of life (QOL), and employment is an important factor in aiding the social reintegration of LT patients. This study aims to evaluate the current employment status of liver graft recipients and various factors that may hinder reemployment.

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The liver is one of the most common sites to which malignancies preferentially metastasize. Although a substantial number of liver malignancies are primary tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the metastasis of carcinomas to the liver is relatively common and frequently encountered in clinical settings. Representative carcinomas that frequently metastasize to the liver include colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, lung carcinoma, and gastric carcinoma. The diagnostic confirmation of suspected metastatic lesions in the liver is generally achieved through a histopathologic examination of biopsy tissues. Although morphology is the most important feature for a pathologic differential diagnosis of metastatic carcinomas, immunohistochemical studies facilitate the differentiation of metastatic carcinoma origins and subtypes. Useful immunohistochemical markers for the differential diagnosis of metastatic carcinomas in the liver include cytokeratins (CK7, CK19, and CK20), neuroendocrine markers (CD56, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A), and tissue-specific markers (CDX2, SATB2, TTF-1, GCDFP-15, mammaglobin, etc.). Here, we provide a brief review about the pathologic differential diagnosis of major metastatic carcinomas in the liver.

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Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is an early manifestation of cardiac dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the effect of LVDD on survival has not been clarified, especially in decompensated LC.

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), together with metabolic syndrome and obesity, has shown a rapid increase in prevalence worldwide and is emerging as a major cause of chronic liver disease and liver transplantation. Among the various phenotypes of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is highly likely to progress to development of end-stage liver disease and cardiometabolic disease, resulting in liver-related and non-liver-related mortality. Nonetheless, there is no standardized pharmacotherapy against NASH and many drugs are under development in ongoing clinical trials. To develop a successful anti-NASH drug, it is necessary to select an appropriate target population and treatment outcomes depending on whether the mode of action is anti-metabolic, anti-inflammatory or anti-fibrotic. Recently, innovative surrogate markers have been investigated to replace hard outcomes such as liver histology and mortality and reduce the clinical trial duration. Currently, several drugs with fast track designation are being tested in phase III clinical trials, and many other drugs have moved into phase II clinical trials. Both lean NAFLD and typical obese NAFLD have been extensively studied and genetic variants such as PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 have been identified as significant risk factors for lean NAFLD. In the near future, noninvasive biomarkers and effective targeted therapies for NASH and associated fibrosis are required to develop precision medicine and tailored therapy according to various phenotypes of NAFLD.

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Leptin is associated with metabolic disorders, which predispose one to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The role of leptin in NAFLD pathogenesis is not fully understood. We aim to investigate the association between serum leptin level and severity of NAFLD using U.S. nationally representative data.

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The objective of our study was to determine the epidemiological, laboratory, and serological characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and normal transaminases. The study also aimed to evaluate liver damage by measuring the liver fibrosis (LF) grade and to identify possible factors associated with the presence of fibrosis.

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Eight years have passed since Clinical and Molecular Hepatology changed its language policy to English-only in September 2010. The journal has been included in PubMed Central since September 2010. Present title continues the Korean Journal of Hepatology since June 2012. It has been indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection as an Emerging Sources Citation Index journal since 2015. I sought to determine whether the change in language policy was successful based on journal metrics. I also investigated whether the journal has become one of the top-ranked world journals in the category of gastroenterology and hepatology.

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There have been numerous efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with antiviral agents during pregnancy. However, there are limited data regarding the outcomes of pregnant women after delivery. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of antiviral agents in preventing MTCT of HBV and maternal long-term outcomes.

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent chronic liver diseases in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sitagliptin with and without a synbiotic supplement in the treatment of patients with NAFLD.