SciCombinator

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Journal: Clinical and experimental reproductive medicine

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The implantation process is highly complex and difficult to mimic in vitro, and a reliable experimental model of implantation has yet to be established. Many researchers have used embryo transfer (ET) to assess implantation potential; however, ET with pseudopregnant mice requires expert surgical skills and numerous sacrificial animals. To overcome those economic and ethical problems, several researchers have tried to use outgrowth models to evaluate the implantation potential of embryos. Many previous studies, as well as our experiments, have found significant correlations between blastocyst outgrowth in vitro and implantation in utero by ET. This review proposes the blastocyst outgrowth model as a possible alternative to animal experimentation involving ET in utero. In particular, the outgrowth model might be a cost- and time-effective alternative method to ET for evaluating the effectiveness of culture conditions or treatments. An advanced outgrowth model and further culture of outgrowth embryos could provide a subtle research model of peri- and postimplantation development, excluding maternal effects, and thereby could facilitate progress in assisted reproductive technologies. Recently, we found that outgrowth embryos secreted extracellular vesicles containing specific microRNAs. The function of microRNAs from outgrowth embryos should be elucidated in further researches.

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The present study investigated sperm chromatin quality and testosterone levels in acrylamide-treated mice and the possible protective effects of vitamin E on the fertility potential of spermatozoa.

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In the present study, we aimed to retrospectively evaluate the cumulative live birth rate (LBR) after up to three consecutive embryo transfer (ET) cycles, either fresh or frozen, in women with expected poor ovarian response (ePOR).

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The inverse correlation between maternal age and pregnancy rate represents a major challenge for reproductive endocrinology. The high embryo ploidy error rate in failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles reflects genetic misfires accumulated by older oocytes over time. Despite the application of different follicular recruitment protocols during IVF, gonadotropin modifications are generally futile in addressing such damage. Even when additional oocytes are retrieved, quality is frequently poor. Older oocytes with serious cytoplasmic and/or chromosomal errors are often harvested from poorly perfused follicles, and ovarian vascularity and follicular oxygenation impact embryonic chromosomal competency. Because stimulation regimens exert their effects briefly and immediately before ovulation, gonadotropins alone are an ineffective antidote to long-term hypoxic pathology. In contrast, the tissue repair properties (and particularly the angiogenic effects) of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are well known, with applications in other clinical contexts. Injection of conventional PRP and/or its components (e.g., isolated platelet-derived growth factors as a cell-free substrate) into ovarian tissue prior to IVF has been reported to improve reproductive outcomes. Any derivative neovascularity may modulate oocyte competence by increasing cellular oxygenation and/or lowering concentrations of intraovarian reactive oxygen species. We propose a mechanism to support intrastromal angiogenesis, improved follicular perfusion, and, crucially, embryo ploidy rescue. This last effect may be explained by mRNA upregulation coordinated by PRP-associated molecular signaling, as in other tissue systems. Additionally, we outline an intraovarian injection technique for platelet-derived growth factors and present this method to help minimize reliance on donor oocytes and conventional hormone replacement therapy.

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Despite extensive research on implantation failure, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the crosstalk between the embryo and the maternal endometrium, which is critical for successful pregnancy. Profilin 1 (PFN1), which is expressed both in the embryo and in the endometrial epithelium, acts as a potent regulator of actin polymerization and the cytoskeletal network. In this study, we identified the specific role of endometrial PFN1 during embryo implantation.

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Endometrial fibrosis, the primary pathological feature of intrauterine adhesion, may lead to disruption of endometrial tissue structure, menstrual abnormalities, infertility, and recurrent pregnancy loss. At present, no ideal therapeutic strategy exists for this fibrotic disease. Eupatilin, a major pharmacologically active flavone from Artemisia, has been previously reported to act as a potent inducer of dedifferentiation of fibrotic tissue in the liver and lung. However, the effects of eupatilin on endometrial fibrosis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we present the first report on the impact of eupatilin treatment on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced endometrial fibrosis.

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To investigate whether the degree of post-warming embryo or blastocyst development is associated with clinical pregnancy in vitrified embryo or blastocyst transfer cycles.

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The survival of a semi-allogeneic fetus depends on several immunological mechanisms, and it has been suggested that recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) could develop as a result of one or more immunological abnormalities.

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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional insemination (in vitro fertilization [IVF]) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on the fertilization, developmental competence, implantation potential, and clinical pregnancy rate of embryos derived from in vitro matured oocytes of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of vaginal progesterone for luteal phase support (LPS) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in natural frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles via a meta-analysis.