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Journal: Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology


Spontaneous nystagmus, which has been considered a typical sign of acute vestibulopathy, has recently been reported in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the lateral semicircular canals (LC-BPPV) without unilateral vestibulopathy (pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus, PSN), but research about its clinical application is still limited. Here we investigate the frequency and characteristics of PSN in LC-BPPV patients, and estimate its prognostic value.

Concepts: Medical terms, Semicircular canal, Prognosis, Ear, Canal, Pathologic nystagmus, Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Horizontal semicircular canal


The clinical features of various facial deformities in Korean leprosy patients were evaluated according to the type of leprosy.

Concepts: According to Jim, Leprosy


The aim of this study was to evaluate and report the long-term results of the butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty. Short-term and long-term hearing outcomes were compared according to age and perforation location as well.


It is well known that allergic rhinitis (AR) has positive association with adenotonsillectomy. However, the impact of AR on symptom improvement after adenotonsillectomy is not well documented. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the effect of AR on the symptom improvement after adenotonsillectomy between AR and nonallergic patients.

Concepts: Allergy


Vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) refers to neurological causes of reduced or absent movement of one or both vocal folds. Bilateral BVFP is characterized by inspiratory dyspnea due to narrowing of the airway at the glottic level with both vocal folds assuming a paramedian position. The primary objective of intervention for BVFP is to relieve patients' dyspnea. Common clinical options for management include tracheostomy, arytenoidectomy and cordotomy. Other options that have been used with varying success include reinnervation techniques and botulinum toxin (Botox) injections into the vocal fold adductors. More recently, research has focused on neuromodulation, laryngeal pacing, gene therapy, and stem cell therapy. These newer approaches have the potential advantage of avoiding damage to the voicing mechanism of the larynx with an added goal of restoring some physiologic movement of the affected vocal folds. However, clinical data are scarce for these new treatment options (i.e., reinnervation and pacing), so more investigative work is needed. These areas of research are expected to provide dramatic improvements in the treatment of BVFP.

Concepts: Stem cell, Human voice, Larynx, Phonation, Vocal folds, Phonetics, Botulinum toxin, Botulism


Closed reduction is generally recommended for acute nasal bone fractures, and rhinoplasty is considered in cases with an unsatisfactory outcome. However, concomitant rhinoplasty with fracture reduction might achieve better surgical outcomes. This study investigated the surgical techniques and outcomes in patients who underwent rhinoplasty and fracture reduction concomitantly, during the acute stage of nasal bone fracture.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Bone fracture, Fracture, Orthopedic surgery, Bone fractures, Bone healing, Fibrocartilage callus


Eustachian tube dysfunction has been associated with most cases of middle-ear disease. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of dynamic slow motion video endoscopy (DSVE) as a test of eustachian tube dysfunction. Furthermore, we assessed the correlation of the test with the Valsalva maneuver, the seven-item Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire (ETDQ-7), and intraoperative findings of the eustachian tube.

Concepts: Middle ear, Eustachian tube, Otitis media, Ear, Pseudoephedrine, Patulous Eustachian tube, Valsalva maneuver, Ear clearing


Pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is very complex and has not yet been clearly understood. To date, various factors have been researched to have relations with the pathogenesis of CRS, such as superantigens and biofilms. Recently, we found an unusual pathological finding in patients with CRS, and we called this new entity as bacteria ball (or bioball). In this study, we analyze the clinical characteristics of bacteria ball occurred in CRS.

Concepts: Immune system, Archaea, Bacteria, Fungus, Sinusitis, Biofilm, Quorum sensing, Meningitis


This study aims to determine the anatomical changes occurring in the nasal septal body (NSB) among patients with sinonasal disease and compares the measurements obtained from patients without sinonasal disease.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Infectious disease, Death, Medical terms, Anatomy


Total thyroidectomy is increasingly accepted for the management of bilateral benign thyroid disorders. Postoperatively, patients require lifelong levothyroxine replacement therapy to avoid postoperative hypothyroidism, which besides the burden of compliance, has been proven to be associated with several long-term side effects. Heterotopic thyroid autotransplantation was proposed several decades ago to avoid the need for life-long postoperative replacement therapy with maintaining the autoregulatory mechanism of thyroxin production inside the body according to its needs. Available data regarding this topic in literature is relatively poor. Before applying thyroid autotransplantation on humans, several studies have been done on animals, where the autologous transplantations were found to be successful in almost all the cases, proved by follow up postoperative 8-week measurements of thyroid hormones and histopathological examination of the removed autografts. Regarding the clinical application, few trials have been done using cryopreserved in vivo, in vitro or immediately autotransplanted thyroid autografts. Satisfactory results were obtained, however, the number of these studies and the number of patients per each study was very low. Besides the study methodologies were not so consistent.

Concepts: In vivo, Thyroid disease, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, In vitro, Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine