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Journal: Clinical and experimental emergency medicine


Lacerations are a common reason for patients to seek medical attention, and are often acutely managed in the emergency department. Recent studies pertaining to closure techniques, sedation and analgesia, advances in wound care, and various other topics have been published, which may enhance our understanding of this injury and improve our management practices. This article will review pertinent studies published in the past few years relevant to laceration management. Understanding the current literature and appreciating which areas warrant further investigation will help us optimize outcomes for patients who sustain laceration injuries.


The primary survey assessment is a cornerstone of resuscitation processes. The name itself implies that it is the first step in resuscitation. In this article, we argue that in an organized resuscitation the primary survey must be preceded by a series of steps to optimize safety and performance and set the stage for the execution of expert team behavior. Even in the most time critical situations, an effective team will optimize the environment, perform self-assessments of personal readiness and participate in a preemptive team brief. We call these processes the ‘zero point survey’ as it precedes the primary survey. This paper explains the rationale for the zero point survey and describes a structured approach designed to be suitable for all resuscitation situations.


Determine differences between faculty, residents, and nurses regarding night shift preparation, performance, recovery, and perception of emotional and physical health effects.


Ketamine use in emergency departments (EDs) for procedural sedation and analgesia is becoming increasingly common. However, few studies have examined patient factors related to adverse events associated with ketamine. This study investigated factors for consideration when using ketamine to sedate pediatric ED patients.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Physician, Anesthesia, Procedural sedation, Midazolam, Sedation, Ketamine


To analyze the trends in demographics and outcomes of patients presenting with traumatic brain injury by performing a retrospective database review of the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) Trauma Registry.


Comatose cardiac arrest patients frequently experience cardiogenic shock or recurrent arrest. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to salvage patients with cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest refractory to conventional therapies. However, in comatose cardiac arrest patients whose neurologic recovery is uncertain, the use of ECMO is restricted because it requires considerable financial and human resources. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography is an easily applicable, real-time electroencephalography monitoring tool that has been increasingly used to monitor brain activity in comatose cardiac arrest patients. We describe our experience of using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in decision-making to place ECMO for comatose cardiac arrest patients whose eventual neurologic recovery appeared uncertain at the time of ECMO placement.


Emergency physicians in the field are sometimes confronted with cases wherein patients cannot be intubated and ventilated. In some cases, cricothyrotomy, the method of choice for securing an emergency airway, may not have a successful outcome. We report a rare case of a 35-yearold male patient with avulsion of the larynx and a comminuted fracture of the jawbone, due to entrapment in a dung excavator. Prehospital tracheotomy was successfully performed. In cases with crush injuries to the larynx, anatomic structures, including the ligamentum conicum, are destroyed. In addition, massive subcutaneous emphysema blurs the anatomical key structures; hence, only a tracheotomy can prevent a lethal outcome.


The head-tilt/chin-lift (HT/CL) is a simple, routinely used maneuver to open the upper airway. Changes in the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) before and after the HT/CL maneuver have not been evaluated among conscious volunteers who are regarded as a control cohort.


Despite limited evidence, electrical cardioversion of acute-onset atrial fibrillation (AAF) is widely performed in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to describe the effectiveness and safety of electrical cardioversion of AAF performed by emergency physicians in the ED.


Few reliable and valid prognostic tools are available to help emergency physicians identify patients who might benefit from early palliative approaches. We sought to determine if responses to a modified version of the surprise question, “Would you be surprised if this patient died in the next 30 days” could predict in-hospital mortality and resource utilization for hospitalized emergency department patients.