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Journal: Clinical and experimental emergency medicine


Lacerations are a common reason for patients to seek medical attention, and are often acutely managed in the emergency department. Recent studies pertaining to closure techniques, sedation and analgesia, advances in wound care, and various other topics have been published, which may enhance our understanding of this injury and improve our management practices. This article will review pertinent studies published in the past few years relevant to laceration management. Understanding the current literature and appreciating which areas warrant further investigation will help us optimize outcomes for patients who sustain laceration injuries.


The primary survey assessment is a cornerstone of resuscitation processes. The name itself implies that it is the first step in resuscitation. In this article, we argue that in an organized resuscitation the primary survey must be preceded by a series of steps to optimize safety and performance and set the stage for the execution of expert team behavior. Even in the most time critical situations, an effective team will optimize the environment, perform self-assessments of personal readiness and participate in a preemptive team brief. We call these processes the ‘zero point survey’ as it precedes the primary survey. This paper explains the rationale for the zero point survey and describes a structured approach designed to be suitable for all resuscitation situations.


Determine differences between faculty, residents, and nurses regarding night shift preparation, performance, recovery, and perception of emotional and physical health effects.


Ketamine use in emergency departments (EDs) for procedural sedation and analgesia is becoming increasingly common. However, few studies have examined patient factors related to adverse events associated with ketamine. This study investigated factors for consideration when using ketamine to sedate pediatric ED patients.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Physician, Anesthesia, Procedural sedation, Midazolam, Sedation, Ketamine


Pralidoxime is widely used for the treatment of organophosphate poisoning. Multiple studies have reported its vasoconstrictive property, which may facilitate the restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest by increasing the coronary perfusion pressure (CPP). 2,3-Butanedione monoxime, which belongs to the same oxime family, has been shown to facilitate ROSC by reducing left ventricular ischemic contracture. Because pralidoxime and 2,3-butanedione monoxime have several common mechanisms of action, both drugs may have similar effects on ischemic contracture. Thus, we investigated the effects of pralidoxime administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model with a focus on ischemic contracture and CPP.


A common emergency department (ED) patient care outcome metric is 72-hour ED return visits (EDRVs). Risks predictive of EDRV vary in different studies. However, risk differences associated with related versus unrelated EDRV and subsequent EDRV disposition deviations (EDRVDD) are rarely addressed. We aim to compare the potential risk patterns predictive of related and unrelated EDRV and further determine those potential risks predictive of EDRVDD.


Hepatic haemangioma is a congenital vascular malformation, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumour. Spontaneous or traumatic rupture is the most severe complication. In case of rupture, surgical resection and enucleation, as a single therapy or after trans-arterial embolization are considered the treatments of choice. We report a case of spontaneous rupture of a hepatic haemangioma with massive hemoperitoneum successfully treated by percutaneous hepatic trans-arterial embolization and pelvic drainage alone.


To analyze the trends in demographics and outcomes of patients presenting with traumatic brain injury by performing a retrospective database review of the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) Trauma Registry.


Comatose cardiac arrest patients frequently experience cardiogenic shock or recurrent arrest. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to salvage patients with cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest refractory to conventional therapies. However, in comatose cardiac arrest patients whose neurologic recovery is uncertain, the use of ECMO is restricted because it requires considerable financial and human resources. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography is an easily applicable, real-time electroencephalography monitoring tool that has been increasingly used to monitor brain activity in comatose cardiac arrest patients. We describe our experience of using amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in decision-making to place ECMO for comatose cardiac arrest patients whose eventual neurologic recovery appeared uncertain at the time of ECMO placement.


Emergency physicians in the field are sometimes confronted with cases wherein patients cannot be intubated and ventilated. In some cases, cricothyrotomy, the method of choice for securing an emergency airway, may not have a successful outcome. We report a rare case of a 35-yearold male patient with avulsion of the larynx and a comminuted fracture of the jawbone, due to entrapment in a dung excavator. Prehospital tracheotomy was successfully performed. In cases with crush injuries to the larynx, anatomic structures, including the ligamentum conicum, are destroyed. In addition, massive subcutaneous emphysema blurs the anatomical key structures; hence, only a tracheotomy can prevent a lethal outcome.