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Journal: Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis

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Patients with iliac deep vein thrombosis (DVT) have a poor prognosis and high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). We evaluated the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH; tinzaparin) versus usual care (tinzaparin plus warfarin for ≥12 weeks at home) in the development of PTS according to DVT location (iliac/noniliac) by retrospective analysis of the Home-LITE cohort (480 patients with proximal DVT). Patients with iliac DVT had an overall odds ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33, 0.83; P = .0079) for PTS (including ulcer data) in favor of tinzaparin. Patients with noniliac DVT had a similar odds ratio (0.79 [95% CI 0.67, 0.93], P = .0046) to that reported in the overall Home-LITE population (0.76 [95% CI 0.66, 0.89], P = .0004; including ulcer data), both in favor of tinzaparin. Long-term LMWH may be a suitable alternative for the prevention of PTS in patients with iliac DVT who are unlikely to undergo invasive thrombolysis.

Concepts: Stroke, Thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Vein, Low molecular weight heparin, Anticoagulant, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein

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Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, White blood cell, Monocyte, Blood, Atherosclerosis, Heart, Artery

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We aimed to evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities for extremity venous thrombosis (VT) in neonates and infants, highlighting the current debate on their best tool of management. This retrospective study took place over a 9-year period from January 2009 to December 2017. All treated patients were referred to the vascular and pediatric surgery departments from the neonatal intensive care unit. All patients underwent a thorough history-taking as well as general clinical and local examination of the affected limb. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group I included those who underwent a conservative treated with the sole administration of unfractionated heparin (UFH), whereas group II included those who were treated with UFH plus warfarin. Sixty-three patients were included in this study. They were 36 males and 27 females. Their age ranged from 3 to 302 days. Forty-one (65%) patients had VT in the upper limb, whereas the remaining 22 (35%) had lower extremity VT. The success rate of the nonsurgical treatment was accomplished in 81% of patients. The remaining 19% underwent limb severing, due to established gangrene. The Kaplan-Meier survival method revealed a highly significant increase in both mean and median survival times in those groups treated with heparin and warfarin compared to heparin-only group ( P < .001). Nonoperative treatment with anticoagulation or observation (ie, wait-and-see policy) alone may be an easily applicable, effective, and a safe modality for management of VT in neonates and infants, especially in developing countries with poor or highly challenged resource settings.

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This study evaluated whether rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM; Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany) FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) can be used to predict plasma fibrinogen level in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Linear regression was conducted to predict plasma fibrinogen level using FIBTEM MCF (0.05 level of significance). Scatter plot with the regression line for the model fit was created. Fifty charts were retrospectively reviewed, and 87 independent measurements of FIBTEM MCF paired with plasma fibrinogen levels were identified for analysis. Linear regression analysis suggested a significant positive linear relationship ( P < .0001) between plasma fibrinogen levels and MCF. Both MCF intercept and slope were significantly correlated with fibrinogen level ( P < .0001). The estimated regression equation (predicted fibrinogen = 78.6 + 12.4 × MCF) indicates that a 1-mm increase in MCF raises plasma fibrinogen level by an average of 12.4 mg/dL. The statistically significant positive linear relationship observed between MCF and fibrinogen levels ( P < .001) suggests that MCF can be used as a surrogate for fibrinogen level. This relationship is of clinical relevance in the calculation of patient-specific dosing of fibrinogen supplementation in this setting.

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Edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor (FXa), is the fourth direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) approved for clinical use in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Latin America, following global approvals for this indication. Edoxaban features some particular characteristics when compared to the previously approved DOACs. This review summarizes the main properties of edoxaban, the outcomes results of its pivotal global clinical trials and the peculiar clinical features of this compound. This practical guide aims to help Latin America clinicians understand edoxaban, its proper indication and its use for the appropriate patients with VTE.

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One of the crucial risk factors for development of severe postthrombotic disease (PTD) is the recurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). New opportunities for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis of secondary thrombophilia were associated with the direct thrombin inhibitor-Dabigatran (Pradaxa; Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany). We aimed to investigate the daily pharmacodynamics of dabigatran in healthy volunteers and patients with PTD. Treatment with dabigatran in patients with PTD having chronic chronometric hypercoagulation and structural hypocoagulation before the administration of the drug is fraught with excessive anticoagulation and a high risk of clinically significant bleeding. In patients with PTD with detected chronometric and structural hypercoagulability before taking a direct thrombin inhibitor, treatment with dabigatran is fraught with possible inadequate anticoagulation and a high risk of clinically significant relapses of thromboses. According to our data, markers of risk of hemorrhagic complications under Dabigatran are the thromboelastography indicators lying within the reference values of the healthy before the administration of the drug: fibrin-platelet clot formation, maximum amplitude of TEG; total lytic activity of blood, and thrombodynamic potential index . Monitoring the effects of the targeted anticoagulant demonstrated the need for correction of dosage and discrete use of the drug in prevention and treatment for thrombohemorrhagic complications in this category of patients. The results of the study prove the efficiency of the therapy with dabigatran and “behavior” of hemostatic potential in patients being taken into account and controlled. Therapy may be long term but requires dynamic monitoring of patients with timely dose adjustment to achieve and maintain the target level of hemostatic potential.

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It is unclear whether initial infection control or anticoagulant therapy exerts a greater effect on early changes in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score among patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). This retrospective propensity score cohort study aimed to evaluate whether adequacy of infection control or anticoagulation therapy had a greater effect on early changes in the SOFA scores among 52 patients with sepsis-induced DIC. Inadequate initial infection control was associated with a lower 28-day survival rate among patients with sepsis-induced DIC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.116, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.022-0.601; P = .010); however, the adequacy was not associated with an early improvement in the SOFA score. However, despite adjusting for inadequate initial infection control, administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin was associated with an early improvement in the SOFA score (OR: 5.058, 95% CI: 1.047-24.450; P = .044). Therefore, early changes in the SOFA score within 48 hours after the DIC diagnosis were more strongly affected by the administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin than the adequacy of initial infection control.

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Pulmonary embolism represents the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in the United States. Reperfusion therapeutic strategies such as systemic thrombolysis, catheter directed therapies, surgical pulmonary embolectomy, and cardiopulmonary support devices are currently available for patients with high- and intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism. However, deciding on optimal therapy may be challenging. Pulmonary embolism response teams have been designed to facilitate multidisciplinary decision-making with the goal to improve quality of care for complex cases with pulmonary embolism. Herein, we discuss the current role and strategies on how to leverage the strengths from pulmonary embolism response teams, its possible worldwide adoption, and implementation to improve survival and change the paradigm in the care of a potentially deadly disease.

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Select patients with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can be managed as outpatients. We sought to conduct a systematic review of real-world studies describing either (1) the clinical characteristics associated with outpatient DVT treatment in all-comers or (2) emergency department (ED) programs designed to facilitate outpatient DVT treatment. MEDLINE and SCOPUS were searched (January 1, 2012, to May 1, 2018) to identify citations meeting the aforementioned criteria. Twenty-one real-world studies were included. The proportion of all-comer patients with DVT managed as outpatients was ≤50% in 11 of 15 studies. With the exception of younger age, no characteristics were consistently associated with outpatient treatment across the 13 studies reporting these characteristics. We identified 8 studies describing ED programs aimed at facilitating DVT outpatient treatment, all of which provided education and included measures to encourage early outpatient follow-up after ED discharge. In conclusion, the proportion of patients with DVT managed as outpatients across real-world studies was low. Several ED programs aimed at facilitating this treatment have been described. It is possible that programs similar to these will increase the proportion of patients with DVT that can be safely managed as outpatients.

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The prevalence of neurocognitive deficits remains high in patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD5D). Major contributors to such deficits include stroke, cervical carotid artery disease (CCAD), and intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD). The risk of developing these dysfunctional vascular processes is facilitated by the chronic inflammation associated with renal failure. Plasma levels of 10 circulating biomarkers in patients with CKD5D (n = 78-90) were quantified using the sandwich enzyme linked immune sorbent assay method. Biomarkers for this study included kidney injury molecule-1, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-18, endothelin 1, calcifediol, parathyroid hormone, platelet-derived growth factor, microparticles-expressing tissue factor, and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)). Of the 90 patients with CKD5D, 30 had CCAD, 24 had ICAD, and 22 had stroke. Lp(a) level was significantly elevated in patients with CKD5D with comorbid ICAD compared to those without (125.70 ± 10.03 ng/mL vs 97.16 ± 5.97 ng/mL; P = .0065). NT-proBNP level was also significantly elevated in patients with CKD5D with comorbid stroke diagnosis compared to those without stroke history, once patients with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) were excluded (14.84 ± 2.80 ng/mL vs 9.06 ± 1.27 ng/mL; P = .0283). Profiling levels of Lp(a) and NT-ProBNP could thus be useful in the risk stratification of ICAD and stroke, respectively, in the CKD5D population.