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Journal: Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis


Patients with iliac deep vein thrombosis (DVT) have a poor prognosis and high incidence of postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). We evaluated the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH; tinzaparin) versus usual care (tinzaparin plus warfarin for ≥12 weeks at home) in the development of PTS according to DVT location (iliac/noniliac) by retrospective analysis of the Home-LITE cohort (480 patients with proximal DVT). Patients with iliac DVT had an overall odds ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33, 0.83; P = .0079) for PTS (including ulcer data) in favor of tinzaparin. Patients with noniliac DVT had a similar odds ratio (0.79 [95% CI 0.67, 0.93], P = .0046) to that reported in the overall Home-LITE population (0.76 [95% CI 0.66, 0.89], P = .0004; including ulcer data), both in favor of tinzaparin. Long-term LMWH may be a suitable alternative for the prevention of PTS in patients with iliac DVT who are unlikely to undergo invasive thrombolysis.

Concepts: Stroke, Thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Vein, Low molecular weight heparin, Anticoagulant, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein


Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods.

Concepts: Immune system, Inflammation, White blood cell, Monocyte, Blood, Atherosclerosis, Heart, Artery


There are steps to achieve an optimum life for patients with hemophilia in developing countries, and awareness of the pattern of death in patients with hemophilia is a prerequisite for any health-care program. Owing to the lack of any data on the pattern of death in patients with hemophilia from developing countries, the current study was done to address common causes of death, and the spectrum of causes of death among individuals with hemophilia A and B. To address the pattern of death in northeast of Iran, we retrospectively collected demographic data regarding deceased patients with hemophilia A and B. Overall, among 379 people with hemophilia A and B, there were 46 deaths. Thirty-two deaths happened in the severe forms of the diseases. The obtained results show the patterns of death in the patients studied are not as parallel as some reports from the developed countries. Traumatic and spontaneous bleeding events were the main causes of death. The trend of death shows a decrease in the current decade post better therapeutic facilities. Evaluation of causes of death in hemophilia can be a useful indicator for managing the efficacy of health care in the current patients.


It is unclear whether initial infection control or anticoagulant therapy exerts a greater effect on early changes in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score among patients with sepsis-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). This retrospective propensity score cohort study aimed to evaluate whether adequacy of infection control or anticoagulation therapy had a greater effect on early changes in the SOFA scores among 52 patients with sepsis-induced DIC. Inadequate initial infection control was associated with a lower 28-day survival rate among patients with sepsis-induced DIC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.116, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.022-0.601; P = .010); however, the adequacy was not associated with an early improvement in the SOFA score. However, despite adjusting for inadequate initial infection control, administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin was associated with an early improvement in the SOFA score (OR: 5.058, 95% CI: 1.047-24.450; P = .044). Therefore, early changes in the SOFA score within 48 hours after the DIC diagnosis were more strongly affected by the administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin than the adequacy of initial infection control.


The aim of our study was to quantify risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) during the puerperal period. The case-control study was conducted in Women’s Hospital, Zhejiang University, China, from January 2006 to December 2016; cases of hospitalized VTE within 1 week after delivery were identified according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Control postpartum women without VTE were randomly selected, matched on birth day, age, delivery mode, and number of fetus with 4:1 ratio. Clinical risk factors for postpartum VTE and coagulation parameters were analyzed. We found independent variables that were significantly related to postpartum VTE (all P < .05) in a binary logistic regression analysis included preeclampsia/eclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-5.37) and postpartum hemorrhage (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.71-12.40). D-dimer was the only biomarker that statistically significant associated with postpartum VTE in 3 days after delivery (all P < .05). These findings showed preeclampsia/eclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage were important risk factors for early VTE during puerperal period. A higher level of D-dimer was more meaningful than other coagulation parameters to suspect early thrombotic disease after delivery.


We aimed to evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities for extremity venous thrombosis (VT) in neonates and infants, highlighting the current debate on their best tool of management. This retrospective study took place over a 9-year period from January 2009 to December 2017. All treated patients were referred to the vascular and pediatric surgery departments from the neonatal intensive care unit. All patients underwent a thorough history-taking as well as general clinical and local examination of the affected limb. Patients were divided into 2 groups: group I included those who underwent a conservative treated with the sole administration of unfractionated heparin (UFH), whereas group II included those who were treated with UFH plus warfarin. Sixty-three patients were included in this study. They were 36 males and 27 females. Their age ranged from 3 to 302 days. Forty-one (65%) patients had VT in the upper limb, whereas the remaining 22 (35%) had lower extremity VT. The success rate of the nonsurgical treatment was accomplished in 81% of patients. The remaining 19% underwent limb severing, due to established gangrene. The Kaplan-Meier survival method revealed a highly significant increase in both mean and median survival times in those groups treated with heparin and warfarin compared to heparin-only group ( P < .001). Nonoperative treatment with anticoagulation or observation (ie, wait-and-see policy) alone may be an easily applicable, effective, and a safe modality for management of VT in neonates and infants, especially in developing countries with poor or highly challenged resource settings.


This study evaluated whether rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM; Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany) FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) can be used to predict plasma fibrinogen level in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Linear regression was conducted to predict plasma fibrinogen level using FIBTEM MCF (0.05 level of significance). Scatter plot with the regression line for the model fit was created. Fifty charts were retrospectively reviewed, and 87 independent measurements of FIBTEM MCF paired with plasma fibrinogen levels were identified for analysis. Linear regression analysis suggested a significant positive linear relationship ( P < .0001) between plasma fibrinogen levels and MCF. Both MCF intercept and slope were significantly correlated with fibrinogen level ( P < .0001). The estimated regression equation (predicted fibrinogen = 78.6 + 12.4 × MCF) indicates that a 1-mm increase in MCF raises plasma fibrinogen level by an average of 12.4 mg/dL. The statistically significant positive linear relationship observed between MCF and fibrinogen levels ( P < .001) suggests that MCF can be used as a surrogate for fibrinogen level. This relationship is of clinical relevance in the calculation of patient-specific dosing of fibrinogen supplementation in this setting.


Edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor (FXa), is the fourth direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) approved for clinical use in the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Latin America, following global approvals for this indication. Edoxaban features some particular characteristics when compared to the previously approved DOACs. This review summarizes the main properties of edoxaban, the outcomes results of its pivotal global clinical trials and the peculiar clinical features of this compound. This practical guide aims to help Latin America clinicians understand edoxaban, its proper indication and its use for the appropriate patients with VTE.


One of the crucial risk factors for development of severe postthrombotic disease (PTD) is the recurrence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). New opportunities for pharmacological thromboprophylaxis of secondary thrombophilia were associated with the direct thrombin inhibitor-Dabigatran (Pradaxa; Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany). We aimed to investigate the daily pharmacodynamics of dabigatran in healthy volunteers and patients with PTD. Treatment with dabigatran in patients with PTD having chronic chronometric hypercoagulation and structural hypocoagulation before the administration of the drug is fraught with excessive anticoagulation and a high risk of clinically significant bleeding. In patients with PTD with detected chronometric and structural hypercoagulability before taking a direct thrombin inhibitor, treatment with dabigatran is fraught with possible inadequate anticoagulation and a high risk of clinically significant relapses of thromboses. According to our data, markers of risk of hemorrhagic complications under Dabigatran are the thromboelastography indicators lying within the reference values of the healthy before the administration of the drug: fibrin-platelet clot formation, maximum amplitude of TEG; total lytic activity of blood, and thrombodynamic potential index . Monitoring the effects of the targeted anticoagulant demonstrated the need for correction of dosage and discrete use of the drug in prevention and treatment for thrombohemorrhagic complications in this category of patients. The results of the study prove the efficiency of the therapy with dabigatran and “behavior” of hemostatic potential in patients being taken into account and controlled. Therapy may be long term but requires dynamic monitoring of patients with timely dose adjustment to achieve and maintain the target level of hemostatic potential.


Pulmonary embolism represents the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in the United States. Reperfusion therapeutic strategies such as systemic thrombolysis, catheter directed therapies, surgical pulmonary embolectomy, and cardiopulmonary support devices are currently available for patients with high- and intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism. However, deciding on optimal therapy may be challenging. Pulmonary embolism response teams have been designed to facilitate multidisciplinary decision-making with the goal to improve quality of care for complex cases with pulmonary embolism. Herein, we discuss the current role and strategies on how to leverage the strengths from pulmonary embolism response teams, its possible worldwide adoption, and implementation to improve survival and change the paradigm in the care of a potentially deadly disease.